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Ayoub Asadi, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Esmaeel Saemi and Jared M. Porter

is the topic of self-controlled practice. Adopting the method of self-controlled practice is a strategy in which the learner has some control over one or more practice variables ( Sanli, Patterson, Bray, & Lee, 2013 ). For example, if an individual is performing a new exercise, the instructor may

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller and Keith R. Lohse

 = 0.04. (These effect-sizes are for the effect of group controlling for pre-test.) Thus, the combined results do support an advantage for self-controlled practice relative to a yoked control group, but the effect-size is likely smaller than originally estimated. Discussion In the current experiment

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Phillip G. Post, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, Joao A. C. Barros and J. D. Kulpa

Allowing self-control over various modes of instructional support has been shown to facilitate motor learning. Most research has examined factors that directly altered task-relevant information on a trial-to-trial basis (e.g., feedback). Recent research suggests that self-control (SC) effects extend to the manipulation of other types of factors (e.g., total number of practice trials completed). This research also illustrated that learners sometimes select a very small amount of practice when given latitude to do so. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of SC practice within a fixed time period on the learning of a basketball set shot. SC participants chose when to attempt each shot within two 15-min practice sessions, thereby controlling both the total number of shots taken and the spacing of shots. Yoked participants completed the same number of shots as their SC counterparts. Spacing of shots was also matched across groups. The SC group was more accurate and had higher form scores and longer preshot times during retention. These findings provided additional support for the generalizability of SC effects and extended prior research, showing that autonomy over total practice duration was not a prerequisite for the observed effects.

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Suzete Chiviacowsky and Helena Thofehrn Lessa

Granting learners autonomy over certain aspects of the practice context—for example, by providing them with the opportunity to choose when to receive augmented feedback or observe a model—has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the provision of autonomy support to older adults remain scarce. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of providing choice over feedback on motor learning in older adults. Participants were divided into two groups, choice and no-choice, and practiced 36 trials of a linear positioning task. Before each block of six trials, participants from the choice group were given the choice to control, or not, when to receive feedback in the block. No-choice group participants received feedback according to the same schedule as their choice group counterparts, but they could not choose when to receive it. Two days later, participants of both groups performed retention and transfer tests. The choice group demonstrated lower absolute error scores during transfer compared with the no-choice group. The findings reinforce outcomes of previous autonomy support studies and provide the first evidence that choice over feedback can enhance the learning of motor skills in older adults.

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Hamish Crocket

Dominant analyses of sporting subjectivities suggest the contemporary athletic subject embodies a win-at-all-costs instrumental rationality. Yet, as Carless and Douglas (2012) argue, athletes are able to find less problematic alternatives to this understanding of sport. In this article, I use Foucault’s concept of “practices of the self” to undertake a sociological analysis of ethical subjectivities within Ultimate Frisbee. I focus specifically on ascetic, or self-controlling, practices of the self through which players create relationships between their self, Ultimate’s moral code and others. I use this case study to argue that ethical subjectivities offer a productive perspective for sociology of sport.

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Sachi Ikudome, Kou Kou, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori and Hiroki Nakamoto

.g.,  Janelle, Barba, Frehlich, Tennant, & Cauraugh, 1997 ). As an explanation of this effect of self-controlled practice, it has been suggested that learners’ deeper information processing of relevant information is promoted by this type of practice ( Carter & Ste-Marie, 2016 ; Grand et al., 2015 ; Wulf

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Marcelo Eduardo de Souza Nunes, Umberto Cesar Correa, Marina Gusman Thomazi Xavier de Souza, Luciano Basso, Daniel Boari Coelho and Suely Santos

their own performance and use feedback information to improve performance. Furthermore, they were able to do this in different ways, through both the self-control and external control of KP. Therefore, only the ability to take advantage of the benefits of self-controlled practice, rather than the

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Carolee Winstein

Health Organization . Wulf , G. ( 2007 ). Self-controlled practice enhances motor learning: Implications for physiotherapy . Physiotherapy 93 ( 2 ), 96 – 101 . doi:10.1016/j.physio.2006.08.005 10.1016/j.physio.2006.08.005 Wulf , G. , & Lewthwaite , R. ( 2016 ). Optimizing performance through

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

controversies and future directions . Psychological Bulletin, 141 ( 6 ), 1120 – 1144 . doi:10.1037/a0039738 10.1037/a0039738 Post , P.G. , Fairbrother , J.T. , Barros , J.A. , & Kulpa , J. ( 2014 ). Self-controlled practice within a fixed time period facilitates the learning of a basketball set