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Sara Oliveira, Marina Cunha, António Rosado, and Cláudia Ferreira

( Malinauskas, 2010 ). Also, social safeness has been negatively associated with several psychopathological indicators, such as external shame (e.g.,  Marta-Simões, Ferreira, & Mendes, 2017 ) and self-criticism (e.g.,  Kelly, Zuroff, Leybman, & Gilbert, 2012 ). Shame is a universal emotion that arises in the

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Amber D. Mosewich, Peter R.E. Crocker, Kent C. Kowalski, and Anita DeLongis

This study investigated the effects of a self-compassion intervention on negative cognitive states and selfcompassion in varsity women athletes. Athletes who self-identified as being self-critical were randomly assigned to a self-compassion intervention (n = 29) or attention control group (n = 22). The self-compassion intervention consisted of a psychoeducation session and writing components completed over a 7-day period. Measures of self-compassion, state self-criticism, state rumination, and concern over mistakes were collected pretreatment, at 1 week posttreatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. A mixed factorial MANOVA with follow-up post hoc tests demonstrated moderate-to-strong effects for the intervention at posttest and follow-up (Wilks’s Λ = .566, F (8, 42) = 4.03, p < .01, η2 = .43). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-compassion intervention in managing self-criticism, rumination, and concern over mistakes. Fostering a self-compassionate frame of mind is a potential coping resource for women athletes dealing with negative events in sport.

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Mark H. Anshel and Toto Sutarso

The purpose of the present study was to conceptualize maladaptive forms of sport perfectionism by determining the factors (and items within each factor) that best describe this construct among skilled male and female athletes. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduate student athletes ranging in age from 19 to 33 years. A theory-driven four-factor, 18-item Likert-type scale, called the Sport Perfectionism Inventory (SPI), was generated for this study. The factors, each reflecting maladaptive perfectionism to an excessive degree, included the following: concern over mistakes (CM), self-criticism (SC), personal standards (PS), and negative feedback (NF). Results showed that the items were generalizable for both genders, and all correlations between factors in the scale were significant. It was concluded that these dimensions depicted maladaptive sport perfectionism as a function of gender.

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Margo E.K. Adam, Abimbola O. Eke, and Leah J. Ferguson

Athlete-identified important competitive events can have more meaning to athletes than a “typical” competition. Sport-related pressures and expectations that arise due to a competition being perceived as important can lead to increased self-criticism, arousal, and stress for athletes, as well as

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich, and Leah J. Ferguson

behaviors (e.g., fear of negative evaluation, fear of self-compassion, fear of failure, state rumination, concern over mistakes, state self-criticism, shame, negative affect, and passivity), as well as positively related to psychological well-being and constructive reactions (e.g., positivity, perseverance

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Roy J. Shephard

This paper offers a brief response to the article of Bouffard (2001), which in itself was a reaction to two earlier papers published by the present author (Shephard, 1998, 1999). Bouffard makes a vigorous attack on his perceptions of my observations concerning the use of jargon, the primacy of the scientific method, and postmodernism. Unfortunately, his perceptions of my arguments are not always substantiated by a careful reading of the text. Many of the world’s social ills are rashly attributed uniquely to rationalism. No viable alternatives to the scientific method are suggested, and self-criticism of the postmodern approach is less than optimal. Nevertheless, the paper is to be welcomed, both as a challenge to continuing perfection of evidence-based science and as providing an insight into the thinking of those who espouse the postmodernist philosophy.

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Brittany N. Semenchuk, Shaelyn M. Strachan, and Michelle Fortier

; Mosewich et al., 2011 ). Self-compassionate people should accurately perceive their goal progress, without self-criticism ( Terry & Leary, 2011 ). This tendency affords them the emotional safety to engage in effective self-monitoring and problem-solving related to goal pursuit ( Neff et al., 2005

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Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill

showing that self-oriented perfectionism is positively correlated with self-criticism focused on self-correction rather than self-punishment ( Thompson & Zuroff, 2004 ). One implication of this is that, in the absence of increasing shame, increasing guilt may prompt restorative action devoid of self

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

initiative, and accepting responsibility ( Ferguson, Kowalski, Mack, & Sabiston, 2014 ). In addition, self-compassion has been found to be effective as an intervention to reduce negative cognitive states (i.e., concern over mistakes, rumination, and self-criticism) in female athletes ( Mosewich, Crocker

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Cecilia Stenling and Michael Sam

perceived as a threat to what is here conceptualized as empirical credibility and frame consistency. Expecting that these elements are bound to be brought to light, not least because of increasing media scrutiny around sport, RSF officials reported that they should display self-criticism and not “sit and