Four studies were conducted to assess the psychometric properties and the theoretical basis of a version of the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Relationships, which was originally developed and validated for the assessment of romantic relationships, in a different relational context (i.e., coach-athlete relationships). The first study aimed to address the content validity of the modified inventory, the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Coach-Athlete Relationship (IDR-CART) scale. The second study employed factor analytic techniques to examine its psychometric properties. Results confirmed the two-factor structure of the inventory: self-deception (CART-SD) and impression management (CART-IM). In the third study, data were collected under public and anonymous conditions. Results revealed, however, that neither condition supported the factor structure, thereby casting doubt on theoretical assumptions. The fourth study demonstrated that CART-SD is associated with indices of relationship quality, providing evidence of convergent validity. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Karen Howells and David Fletcher
Previous research suggests that adversarial growth is a real and constructive phenomenon that occurs in athletes who compete at the highest level of sport. In this study, however, we adopt a critical stance on the veridicality of growth by exploring Olympic swimmers’ experience of constructive and illusory growth. Semistructured interviews, complemented by timelining, were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Despite the inherently negative aspects of adversity, it was evident from the swimmers’ interpretations that they also perceived positive consequences of their experiences. Analysis revealed that some of these positive outcomes were indicative of illusory aspects of growth, and other positive outcomes were more indicative of constructive aspects of growth. It appears that earlier phases of the growth process were characterized by more illusory aspects of growth, whereas when the temporal proximity from the adversity increased, more constructive aspects of growth were apparent.
Illusory Self-Deception? Karen Howells * David Fletcher * 4 2016 38 2 173 186 10.1123/jsep.2015-0159 Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory Among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach Daniel F. Gucciardi * Chun-Qing Zhang * Vellapandian
Alessandro Quartiroli, Justine Vosloo, Leslee Fisher and Robert Schinke
was noted that the MCI total score was positively and significantly correlated with ethnic exploration ( r = .42; p ≤ .001), commitment ( r = .39; p ≤ .001), impression management ( r = .33; p ≤ .001), and self-deception ( r = .34; p ≤ .001). However, while the MCI total score was negatively
Abby Haynes, Catherine Sherrington, Geraldine Wallbank, David Lester, Allison Tong, Dafna Merom, Chris Rissel and Anne Tiedemann
emphasized by several participants: “I was a bit of a sceptic about health technology . . . . Now I’m a convert. … The Fitbit doesn’t lie… the accuracy of the feedback is good. … I see the value of it now” (male, 71). The data also prevented self-deception—“it keeps you honest” (male, 77)—and facilitated