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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

’s thoughts, mood, and perceived self-efficacy of one’s ability ( Bandura, 1990 , 2004 ). The mechanism with the strongest impact on behavior and skill acquisition is self-efficacy ( Bandura, 2004 ). Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) states that self-efficacy is essential to performing a task or

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

et al., 2012 ; Costello et al., 2001 ). An important determinant of becoming more physically active in older adulthood is self-efficacy ( Orsega-Smith, Payne, Mowen, Ho, & Godbey, 2007 ). Having higher self-efficacy increases the likelihood of changing or maintaining a certain behavior, while lower

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Kim Poag and Edward McAuley

Whereas the success of goal setting is well documented in the industrial-organizational literature (Locke & Latham, 1990), the empirical efforts to determine its effectiveness in sport settings have met with minimal success, and no studies exist that document the role played by goals in successful adherence to exercise regimens. We examined the relationships among goals, efficacy, and exercise behavior in the context of community conditioning classes. Female participants' goal efficacy was predictive of perceived goal achievement at the end of the program, and exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to subsequent intensity but not frequency of exercise participation. Moreover, a proposed interaction between exercise importance and self-efficacy failed to account for further variation in physical activity participation. The results are discussed in terms of the physical activity history of the sample and the roles played by goals and efficacy at diverse stages of the exercise process.

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N.A. Gallaghe, P.J. Clarke, C. Loveland-Cherry, D.L. Ronis and K.A. Gretebeck

This cross-sectional study examined the association of self-efficacy with neighborhood walking in older adult (mean age = 76.1, SD = 8.34) fallers (n = 108) and nonfallers (n = 217) while controlling for demographic characteristics and mobility. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the full model explained 39% of the variance in neighborhood walking in fallers (P < .001) and 24% in nonfallers (P < .001). Self-efficacy explained 23% of the variance in fallers (P < .001) and 11% in nonfallers (P < .001). Neighborhood walking was significantly associated with self-efficacy for individual barriers in both groups. Self-efficacy for neighborhood barriers trended toward significance in fallers (β = .18, P = .06). Fall history did not moderate the relationship between self-efficacy and neighborhood walking. Walking interventions for older adults should address self-efficacy in overcoming individual walking barriers. Those targeting fallers should consider addressing self-efficacy for overcoming neighborhood barriers.

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Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon and DoHwan Park

urgent need to develop innovative theory-based strategies. Social cognitive theory (SCT) has been one of the most commonly used behavior-change theories to increase adherence to behaviors such as diet and exercise. Social cognitive theory posits that motivation, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and

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Liang Hu, Shoubin Cheng, Jiaying Lu, Lele Zhu and Ling Chen

Purpose:

In this study, we examined the effect of the manipulation of exercise self-efficacy on the enjoyment of physical activity in a sample of 44 Chinese adolescents (age = 14.27 ± .87 y), including 22 boys and 22 girls.

Methods:

The participants were randomized into a low-efficacy or high-efficacy condition, and their self-efficacy beliefs for engaging in moderate-intensity physical activity were manipulated by providing false feedback after a submaximal exercise test. The participants’ self-efficacy was measured and compared before and after the exercise test and the participants’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed after the exercise test.

Results:

It was found that exercise self-efficacy was successfully manipulated in the expected direction in both conditions, which significantly influenced the participants’ enjoyment of physical activity. After the exercise test, the participants in the low-efficacy condition reported lower enjoyment scores relative to the high-efficacy participants.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that self-efficacy may have an important influence on the enjoyment of physical activity among Chinese adolescents. We recommend that physical activity promotion programs should be tailored to enhance adolescents’ self-efficacy beliefs and enjoyment of the experience of physical activity.

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Jamie B. Barker, Marc V. Jones and Iain Greenlees

High levels of self-efficacy have been documented to be associated with optimal levels of sport performance. One technique, which has the potential to foster increased self-efficacy, is hypnosis. Hypnosis is based upon the power of suggestion and, while often shrouded in myth and controversy, has been used in a number of domains including medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy. In contrast, sport psychology is one domain where the use of hypnosis has yet to be fully explored. The aim of this review is to add to the extant literature and delineate how hypnosis potentially can enhance self-efficacy. By drawing on neodissociation and nonstate theories of hypnosis, a combined theoretical basis is established to explain how hypnosis may be used to influence sport performers’ sources of self-efficacy information. Furthermore, the review examines these theoretical postulations by presenting contemporary research evidence exploring the effects of hypnosis on sport performers’ self-efficacy. The review concludes with future research directions and suggestions for sport psychologists considering the use of hypnosis within their practice.

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Fuzhong Li, Edward McAuley, Peter Harmer, Terry E. Duncan and Nigel R. Chaumeton

The article describes a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effects of a Tai Chi intervention program on perceptions of personal efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. The sample comprised 94 low-active, healthy participants (mean age = 72.8 years. SD = 5.1) randomly assigned to either an experimental (Tai Chi) group or a wait-list control group. The study length was 6 months, with self-efficacy responses (barrier, performance efficacies) assessed at baseline, at Week 12, and at termination (Week 24) of the study. Exercise attendance was recorded as an outcome measure of exercise behavior. Random-effects models revealed that participants in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy over the course of the intervention. Subsequent repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that participants’ changes in efficacy were associated with higher levels of program attendance. The findings suggest that self-efficacy can be enhanced through Tai Chi and that the changes in self-efficacy are likely to improve exercise adherence.

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William L. Dunlop, Daniel J. Beatty and Mark R. Beauchamp

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M age = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts.

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Thomas R. George, Deborah L. Feltz and Melissa A. Chase

This study examined the effects of model-similarity cues on motor performance and self-efficacy. Specifically, the study was designed to determine which characteristics of a model (sex or ability) subjects perceived as the more salient similarity cue. This study was a replication and extension of the no-talk model conditions employed in the Gould and Weiss (1981) study. Female college students (N=100) with limited or no athletic experience were randomly assigned to one of four modeling conditions (an athletic male model, an athletic female model, a nonathletic male model, or a nonathletic female model) or to a no-model (control) group. After viewing a videotaped demonstration of the model performing a leg-extension endurance task, each subject performed three trials. Subjects completed self-efficacy questionnaires on two occasions. Only those subjects indicating that it was moderately to very important for them to do well on the task were used in the analyses (N=69). Results replicated those in Gould and Weiss's study in that subjects in the nonathletic-model groups extended their legs significantly longer than subjects in the athletic-model groups. In addition, subjects in the nonathletic-model conditions reported higher levels of efficacy compared to subjects in the athletic-model conditions. Our finding extends Gould and Weiss's study in that it suggests that model ability is a more salient similarity cue than model sex for nonathletic or unskilled female observers.