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Jane P. Sheldon

One’s perceived competence relates to participation and effort and can vary depending on the self-evaluation sources that athletes value. Ruble and Frey (1991) theorized that phase of skill development may affect one’s preference for different sorts of competence information. The present study tested Ruble and Frey’s model using a sample of 466 adult tennis players. Skill level was athletes’ United States Tennis Association rating. Participants rated the personal importance of tennis and the importance of different sources of self-assessment information. Results showed that beginners were more likely to value temporal comparisons, and advanced players were more likely to value social comparisons. Players rating tennis as highly important were more likely to value temporal comparisons and effort for self-assessment. The findings support Ruble and Frey’s model.

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Pierre H. Beauchamp, Wayne R. Halliwell, Jean F. Fournier and Richard Koestner

This study examined the effects of a 14-week cognitive-behavioral teaching program on the motivation, preparation, and putting performance of novice golfers. A cognitive-behavioral program was adapted from Boutcher and Rotella (1987) and was compared with a physical skills training group and a control group. The Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tusón, Briére, & Blais, 1995) was used to measure intrinsic versus introjected forms of selfregulation. Preputt routines and actual putting performance were measured by observer ratings. Participants completed all dependent measures prior to training and at 3 additional times spaced over 4-week intervals. The results showed that participants in the cognitive-behavioral program displayed enhanced intrinsic motivation, more consistent use of preputt routines, and improved putting performance relative to participants in the other 2 groups. Cognitive-behavioral participants also showed a significantly reduced use of introjection, which reflects a harsh, self-evaluative form of self-regulation similar to ego involvement. The results support the conclusion drawn by Whelan, Myers, Berman, Bryant, and Mellon (1988) that cognitive-behavioral approaches are effective for performance enhancement; they also suggest that such approaches can produce positive motivational effects.

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Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore

The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.

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Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich

The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between perceived and actual physical competence in children with mild mental retardation (MMR). Participants were 54 males and 55 females, M age = 9.47. Pearson correlation indicated no significant relationship between perceived and actual physical competence in children with MMR. When the age factor was partialed out, the resulting partial correlations revealed a significant moderate relationship between the two variables for older children with MMR. A 6 × 2 (Age × Gender) MANOVA revealed a significant interaction between age and gender on perceived physical competence. No gender difference was found in younger children, whereas in older children, males had significantly higher perceived competence than females. A possible explanation for the nonsignificant correlation between perceived and actual physical competence in younger children may be insufficient cognitive functioning for making self-evaluations.

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Rafael A. B. Tedesqui and Bradley W. Young

Conscientiousness Approaching practice systematically, detail oriented Well planned and dedicated to preparing for practice regimen Thoughtful of others at training Ability to self-evaluate and self-correct Mindful, self-aware, and deliberate in efforts to improve at practice Not driven by the need to impulsively

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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

for self-evaluation in relation to different aspects of health-related fitness” (male teacher, single-sex girls’ school). Many teachers cited the importance of HRPF in promoting physical health (12.3%, n  = 34). One teacher described it as “essential for informing students about their physical health

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan

.e., concrete assistance). Seeking social support is perceived to facilitate athletes’ resilience and ability to overcome obstacles and help them balance sport and other life responsibilities. Synonyms:  • N/A Associated behaviors/outcomes:  • Taking advantage of   a supportive climate Realistic self-evaluation

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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

, individuals are challenged and discover new ways to interact with environmental and other people. The corollary of this is that individuals develop problem-solving skills, creative and imaginative abilities, and interpersonal skills. In some cases, it demands honest self-evaluation and personal goal setting

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan

student Other personnel: support staff /parent helpers Other Teacher behavior Student engagement and behavior TARGET structure: Task Authority Recognition Grouping Evaluation Time Adapted from Targeted School Self-Evaluation Improvement Team (TSSEIT) evaluation tools support materials , by N. Brito, 2009

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Shirley Gray, Paul M. Wright, Richard Sievwright and Stuart Robertson

physical activity content), group meetings (opportunities for students to express their views), and reflective time (time to self-evaluate) is offered to provide some structure to each lesson ( Beaudoin, 2012 ), and Hellison ( 2011 ), the founder of TPSR, proposed several empowerment-based instructional