The Alexander technique was defined by its creator, Frederick Matthias Alexander, as “education in the widest sense of the word, in that it deals with the control of human reaction” ( Alexander, 1946/2000 , p. 28), enabling self-directed behavioral change. It is an educational self-development self-management
Charlotte Woods, Lesley Glover, and Julia Woodman
Stewart G. Trost and Jan Hutley
Teaching adolescents to use self-management strategies may be an effective approach to promoting lifelong physical activity (PA). However, the extent to which adolescents use self-management strategies and their impact on current PA have not been studied previously. The aims of this study were 1) to describe the prevalence of self-management strategy use in adolescents; and 2) to determine relationships between self-management strategy use, PA self-efficacy, and PA participation. 197 students completed questionnaires measuring use of self-management strategies, self-efficacy, and PA behavior. The most prevalent self-management strategies (>30%) were thinking about the benefits of PA, making PA more enjoyable, choosing activities that are convenient, setting aside time to do PA, and setting goals to do PA. Fewer than 10% reported rewarding oneself for PA, writing planned activities in a book or calendar, and keeping charts of PA. Use of self-management strategies was associated with increased self-efficacy (r = .47, p < .001) and higher levels of PA (r = .34 p < .001). A 1-unit difference in self-management strategy scores was associated with a ~fourfold increase in the probability of being active (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4). Although strongly associated with PA, a relatively small percentage of adolescents routinely use self-management strategies.
The effects of a self-management program on preservice teachers’ performance were examined. Intervention included a self-instructional module for self-management as well as practice for implementing self-management in teaching. During a field experience in physical education, pupil behaviors in the classes of four subjects were coded by trained observers using the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education Observation System (ALT-PE). Each teacher’s verbal behavior was audiotaped and coded using the event recording method. The influence of the cooperating teacher and the supervisor was controlled in order to assess self-management efficacy. Results indicated that teachers can acquire self-management skills as they do other teaching skills during their preservice education. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors and a reversal design showed that all subjects changed their teaching behaviors effectively and met the field experience criteria.
Greet Maria Cardon, Leen Liesbeth Haerens, Stefanie Verstraete, and Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij
The present study aimed to investigate how classroom-based self-management lessons to promote physical activity were perceived by students, teachers, and parents. The self-management lessons were implemented by an external physical education specialist in 20 class groups at eight elementary schools. Program perceptions were evaluated in 412 children (mean age 9.7 ± 0.7) using a short questionnaire. Oral surveys were used with 20 teachers and 50 parent participants. Most children were enthusiastic about the program and more than half of them reported being more active. Teachers and parents also perceived the lessons as useful and half of them reported an improvement in children’s physical activity awareness. Eighty percent of the teachers and 32% of the parents perceived an increase in children’s physical activity levels. The SPARK self-management physical activity program appears to promote an active lifestyle in children and was positively received; the implementation of the program by the teachers needs further evaluation.
Kim T.J. Bongers, Yvonne Schoon, Maartje J. Graauwmans, Marlies E. Hoogsteen-Ossewaarde, and Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert
Self-management of mobility and fall risk might be possible if older adults could use a simple and safe self-test to measure their own mobility, balance, and fall risk at home. The aim of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and intraindividual reliability of the maximal step length (MSL), gait speed (GS), and chair test (CT) as potential self-tests for assessing mobility and fall risk. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults performed MSL, GS, and CT at home once a week during a four-week period, wherein the feasibility, test-retest reliability, coefficients of variation, and linear mixed models with random effects of these three self-tests were determined. Forty-nine subjects (mean age 76.1 years [SD: 4.0], 19 females [42%]) completed the study without adverse effects. Compared with the other self-tests, MSL gave the most often (77.6%) valid measurement results and had the best intraclass correlation coefficients (0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91−0.97]). MSL and GS gave no significant training effect, whereas CT did show a significant training effect (p < .01). Community-dwelling older adults can perform MSL safely, correctly, and reliably, and GS safely and reliably. Further research is needed to study the responsiveness and beneficial effects of these self-tests on self-management of mobility and fall risk.
Craig R. Denegar and Giovanni M. Ciriani
Edited by Joe J. Piccininni
Yoojin Suh, Robert W. Motl, Connor Olsen, and Ina Joshi
Physical inactivity is prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and this highlights the importance of developing behavioral interventions for increasing physical activity (PA) in MS. This pilot trial examined the efficacy of a 6-week, behavioral intervention based on social cognitive theory (SCT) delivered by newsletters and phone calls for increasing PA in persons with MS who were physically inactive and had middle levels of self-efficacy.
The sample included 68 persons with relapsing-remitting MS who were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received SCT-based information by newsletters and phone calls, whereas the controls received information regarding topics such as stress management over 6 weeks. Participants completed self-report of PA and social cognitive variables.
The intervention group had a significant increase in self-reported PA (d = 0.56, P = .02) over the 6 weeks, but the controls had a nonsignificant change (d = –0.13, P = .45). Goal setting was changed in the intervention group (d = 0.68, P ≤ .01) and identified as a significant mediator of change in self-reported PA.
This study provides initial evidence for the benefit of a theory-based behavioral intervention for increasing PA in MS.
Steven M. Ortiz
professional athletes respond to their retired husbands’ physical, mental, and emotional health issues that either began during the husband’s career or were a direct result of his occupation. To begin, I introduce the sport marriage as a career-dominated marriage . Second, I identify certain self-management
Thomas L. McKenzie, James F. Sallis, Paul Rosengard, and Kymm Ballard
SPARK [Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids], in its current form, is a brand that represents a collection of exemplary, research-based, physical education and physical activity programs that emphasize a highly active curriculum, on-site staff development, and follow-up support. Given its complexity (e.g., multiple school levels, inclusion of both physical education and self-management curricula), SPARK features both diverse instructional and diverse curricular models. SPARK programs were initially funded by the NIH as two separate elementary and middle school intervention studies, and the curriculum and instructional models used in them embody the HOPE (Health Optimizing Physical Education) model. This paper reviews background information and studies from both the initial grants (1989–2000) and the dissemination (1994-present) phases of SPARK, identifies program evolution, and describes dissemination efforts and outcomes. Procedures used in SPARK may serve as models for others interested in researching and disseminating evidence-based physical education and physical activity programs.
Katherine Beissner, Samantha J. Parker, Charles R. Henderson Jr., Anusmiriti Pal, Lynne Iannone, and M. Cary Reid
This pilot study examined the feasibility and potential efficacy of a self-management program for seniors with chronic back pain and assessed for possible race/ ethnicity differences in program impact. Sixty-nine seniors (24 African Americans, 25 Hispanics, and 20 non-Hispanic Whites) enrolled in the 8-wk community-based program. Efficacy outcomes included pain-related disability as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, social activity, and functional status. Eighty percent of enrollees completed the program. Clinically important decreases in RMDQ scores were found for non-Hispanic White (adjusted change score = –3.53), African American (–3.89), and Hispanic (–8.45) participants. Improvements in all other outcomes were observed, but only for Hispanic participants. Results confirm that implementation of the protocol in urban senior centers is feasible, and the program shows potential efficacy. The race/ethnicity differences observed in the current study merit further investigation.