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Barriers and Enablers for Physical Activity Engagement Among Individuals From India With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mixed-Method Study

Prabhath Matpady, Arun G. Maiya, Pallavi P. Saraswat, Chythra R. Rao, Mamatha Shivananda Pai, Shekarappa D. Anupama, Jeevan K. Shetty, and Shashikiran Umakanth

important measure of effective management of T2DM is glycemic control. 6 Lifestyle modifications (diet, PA, and stress management), medication compliance, periodic check-ups, and self-monitoring of blood glucose are key measures of T2DM self-management that help achieve optimal glycemic control. 6 PA is

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An Education for Life: The Process of Learning the Alexander Technique

Charlotte Woods, Lesley Glover, and Julia Woodman

The Alexander technique was defined by its creator, Frederick Matthias Alexander, as “education in the widest sense of the word, in that it deals with the control of human reaction” ( Alexander, 1946/2000 , p. 28), enabling self-directed behavioral change. It is an educational self-development self-management

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Use of Physical Activity Self-Management Strategies by High School Students

Stewart G. Trost and Jan Hutley

Teaching adolescents to use self-management strategies may be an effective approach to promoting lifelong physical activity (PA). However, the extent to which adolescents use self-management strategies and their impact on current PA have not been studied previously. The aims of this study were 1) to describe the prevalence of self-management strategy use in adolescents; and 2) to determine relationships between self-management strategy use, PA self-efficacy, and PA participation. 197 students completed questionnaires measuring use of self-management strategies, self-efficacy, and PA behavior. The most prevalent self-management strategies (>30%) were thinking about the benefits of PA, making PA more enjoyable, choosing activities that are convenient, setting aside time to do PA, and setting goals to do PA. Fewer than 10% reported rewarding oneself for PA, writing planned activities in a book or calendar, and keeping charts of PA. Use of self-management strategies was associated with increased self-efficacy (r = .47, p < .001) and higher levels of PA (r = .34 p < .001). A 1-unit difference in self-management strategy scores was associated with a ~fourfold increase in the probability of being active (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4). Although strongly associated with PA, a relatively small percentage of adolescents routinely use self-management strategies.

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Effect of Self-Management on Preservice Teachers’ Performance during a Field Experience in Physical Education

Eitan Eldar

The effects of a self-management program on preservice teachers’ performance were examined. Intervention included a self-instructional module for self-management as well as practice for implementing self-management in teaching. During a field experience in physical education, pupil behaviors in the classes of four subjects were coded by trained observers using the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education Observation System (ALT-PE). Each teacher’s verbal behavior was audiotaped and coded using the event recording method. The influence of the cooperating teacher and the supervisor was controlled in order to assess self-management efficacy. Results indicated that teachers can acquire self-management skills as they do other teaching skills during their preservice education. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors and a reversal design showed that all subjects changed their teaching behaviors effectively and met the field experience criteria.

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Perceptions of a School-Based Self-Management Program Promoting an Active Lifestyle among Elementary Schoolchildren, Teachers, and Parents

Greet Maria Cardon, Leen Liesbeth Haerens, Stefanie Verstraete, and Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij

The present study aimed to investigate how classroom-based self-management lessons to promote physical activity were perceived by students, teachers, and parents. The self-management lessons were implemented by an external physical education specialist in 20 class groups at eight elementary schools. Program perceptions were evaluated in 412 children (mean age 9.7 ± 0.7) using a short questionnaire. Oral surveys were used with 20 teachers and 50 parent participants. Most children were enthusiastic about the program and more than half of them reported being more active. Teachers and parents also perceived the lessons as useful and half of them reported an improvement in children’s physical activity awareness. Eighty percent of the teachers and 32% of the parents perceived an increase in children’s physical activity levels. The SPARK self-management physical activity program appears to promote an active lifestyle in children and was positively received; the implementation of the program by the teachers needs further evaluation.

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Safety, Feasibility, and Reliability of the Maximal Step Length, Gait Speed, and Chair Test Measured by Seniors Themselves: The Senior Step Study

Kim T.J. Bongers, Yvonne Schoon, Maartje J. Graauwmans, Marlies E. Hoogsteen-Ossewaarde, and Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert

Self-management of mobility and fall risk might be possible if older adults could use a simple and safe self-test to measure their own mobility, balance, and fall risk at home. The aim of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and intraindividual reliability of the maximal step length (MSL), gait speed (GS), and chair test (CT) as potential self-tests for assessing mobility and fall risk. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults performed MSL, GS, and CT at home once a week during a four-week period, wherein the feasibility, test-retest reliability, coefficients of variation, and linear mixed models with random effects of these three self-tests were determined. Forty-nine subjects (mean age 76.1 years [SD: 4.0], 19 females [42%]) completed the study without adverse effects. Compared with the other self-tests, MSL gave the most often (77.6%) valid measurement results and had the best intraclass correlation coefficients (0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91−0.97]). MSL and GS gave no significant training effect, whereas CT did show a significant training effect (p < .01). Community-dwelling older adults can perform MSL safely, correctly, and reliably, and GS safely and reliably. Further research is needed to study the responsiveness and beneficial effects of these self-tests on self-management of mobility and fall risk.

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Self-Management of Idiopathic Adhesive Capsulitis: A Case Report

Craig R. Denegar and Giovanni M. Ciriani

Edited by Joe J. Piccininni

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Pilot Trial of a Social Cognitive Theory-Based Physical Activity Intervention Delivered by Nonsupervised Technology in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis

Yoojin Suh, Robert W. Motl, Connor Olsen, and Ina Joshi


Physical inactivity is prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and this highlights the importance of developing behavioral interventions for increasing physical activity (PA) in MS. This pilot trial examined the efficacy of a 6-week, behavioral intervention based on social cognitive theory (SCT) delivered by newsletters and phone calls for increasing PA in persons with MS who were physically inactive and had middle levels of self-efficacy.


The sample included 68 persons with relapsing-remitting MS who were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received SCT-based information by newsletters and phone calls, whereas the controls received information regarding topics such as stress management over 6 weeks. Participants completed self-report of PA and social cognitive variables.


The intervention group had a significant increase in self-reported PA (d = 0.56, P = .02) over the 6 weeks, but the controls had a nonsignificant change (d = –0.13, P = .45). Goal setting was changed in the intervention group (d = 0.68, P ≤ .01) and identified as a significant mediator of change in self-reported PA.


This study provides initial evidence for the benefit of a theory-based behavioral intervention for increasing PA in MS.

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Women Caring for Retired Men: A Continuation of Inequality in the Sport Marriage

Steven M. Ortiz

professional athletes respond to their retired husbands’ physical, mental, and emotional health issues that either began during the husband’s career or were a direct result of his occupation. To begin, I introduce the sport marriage as a career-dominated marriage . Second, I identify certain self-management

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“I’d Rather Chew on Aluminum Foil:” Overcoming Classroom Teachers’ Resistance to Teaching Physical Education

Nell Faucette, Peg Nugent, James F. Sallis, and Thomas L. McKenzie

Classroom teachers’ responses to a 2-year professional development program are presented. Sixteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers involved in Project SPARK completed structured interviews, questionnaires, and written evaluations of program sessions. Although in Year 1 more than half of the teachers expressed concerns about schedules and equipment management, results indicated that the program helped increase their self-confidence when teaching physical education. Participants believed that students benefitted from their enhanced knowledge and instructional behaviors. Program components most appreciated included: the input received and responsiveness of the design team; opportunities to collaborate, discuss concerns, and problem-solve with each other and the facilitators; and having on-site and large-group-session modeling. Results indicated that the teachers were less enthusiastic about a self-management curriculum due to its behavioral emphasis, yet supported the assertion that an ongoing, supportive professional development program can substantially improve classroom teachers’ physical education programs.