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B. Ann Boyce and Valerie K. Wayda

This study investigated the effect of three goal-setting conditions (self-set, assigned, and control) and two levels of self-motivation (medium and high) on the performance of females participating in 12 university weight training classes (N = 252). The subjects' levels of self-motivation were assessed via Dishman, Ickes, and Morgan's (1980) Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI). The baseline and performance trials were analyzed in a 3 × 2 × 10 (Goal Condition × Motivation Level × Trial) ANCOVA design, with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline as the covariate. A significant interaction of goal-setting groups and trials was found. Planned comparisons indicated that the assigned goal group was statistically superior to the control and to the self-set groups from Trial 3 through retention. In addition, the two goal-setting groups were statistically superior to the control group at the seventh through retention trials. The subjects' SMI levels were not found to moderate the effect of goal setting on performance.

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Nathalie André and Rod K. Dishman


Exercise adherence involves a number of sociocognitive factors that influence the adoption and maintenance of regular physical activity. Among traitlike factors, self-motivation is believed to be a unique predictor of persistence during behavior change. The aim of this study was to validate the factor structure of a French version of the Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) and to provide initial convergent and discriminant evidence for its construct validity as a correlate of exercise adherence.


Four hundred seventy-one elderly were recruited and administered the SMI-10. Structural equation modeling tested the relation of SMI-10 scores with exercise adherence in a correlated network that included decisional balance and perceived quality of life.


Acceptable evidence was found to support the factor validity and measurement equivalence of the French version of the SMI-10. Moreover, self-motivation was related to exercise adherence independently of decisional balance and perceived quality of life, providing initial evidence for construct validity.

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Jo Weber and Eleanor H. Wertheim

Upon becoming members at a community gymnasium, 55 women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, self-monitoring of gym attendance, or self-monitoring of attendance plus extra staff attention. The effect of these interventions on gym attendance over 3 months was examined. A 3 X 4 (Group X Time Phase, first 3 weeks to last 3 weeks) ANOVA indicated that the main effects for group and time predicted attendance at the gym. Attendance during the first 3 weeks was significantly greater than attendance thereafter. The control subjects attended significantly less than the self-monitoring subjects at all phases. Further research is suggested toward using self-monitoring, staff support, and periodic progress feedback for increasing program adherence. In addition, self-motivation and body fat percent were assessed initially. Correlations between these two variables and attendance failed to support their usefulness as predictors at any time phase.

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Elaine M. Heiby and Robin A. Sato

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Devajyoti Deka

This research examined the effect of pre–post differences in walking duration, health, and weight on retirees’ long-term quality of life (QoL). It used data from a 2018 randomized mail survey of 483 suburban New Jersey retirees. Ordinary least squares and three-stage least squares models were used. The analysis showed that changes in walking duration during the first 2 years of retirement are directly associated with health change, health change has an effect on long-term QoL, and weight variation of 10 lb or more has an effect on health change and long-term QoL. Although QoL peaks for the sample of retirees at around age 75, people whose average walking duration increased, health improved, and weight did not increase substantially after retirement continued to experience high QoL for a longer time. The results show that people can achieve high long-term QoL by choosing an active lifestyle when transitioning to retirement.

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Jeff Fields, Milledge Murphey, MaryBeth Horodyski and Christine Stopka

The purpose of the present study was to identify factors that contribute to adherent or nonadherent behavior during sport injury rehabilitation programs. Thirty-nine male and female college-age recreational athletes participated. The variables under examination were self-motivation/apathy, perceived exertion, social support, scheduling concerns, the clinical environment, and pain tolerance. Independent t tests (p < .05) were used to determine the difference between the adherer and nonadherer groups on each of the six variables. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was employed to determine which of the six variables contributed most to the overall difference. Results of the t tests indicated that significant differences were seen for self-motivation, scheduling concerns, and pain tolerance. The DFA indicated that scheduling concerns contributed most to the overall group difference.

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Anne W. Garcia and Abby C. King

To enhance our understanding of exercise adherence, predictors of adherence based on social-cognitive theory were compared with those derived from a trait approach. A community-based sample of older, sedentary men and women was administered the Self-Motivation Inventory and a self-efficacy questionnaire. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three exercise regimens or to an assessment-only control condition for the following year. The subjects in the exercise conditions recorded each bout of exercise and rated the experience in terms of perceived exertion, enjoyment, and convenience (PEEC) on monthly logs. Based on social-cognitive theory, it was postulated that self-efficacy and certain aspects of the exercise bout itself, such as PEEC, would influence exercise adherence more than the general trait of self-motivation. Self-efficacy was significantly associated with exercise adherence at both 6 months and 1 year (rs = .42 and .44, respectively); self-motivation was not. Contrary to expectations, the PEEC components measured during the first 6 months did not make a significant contribution to the variance in adherence during the second 6 months.

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Rod K. Dishman and Larry R. Gettman

A 20-week behavioral study was conducted involving adult males (N = 66) in programs of cardiovascular and muscular endurance training. The relationship between exercise adherence and selected psychological and biological variables was examined as was the ability of these variables to discriminate between exercise adherers and dropouts. Results indicated that percent body fat, self-motivation, and body weight discriminated (p < .05) between eventual adherers and dropouts. When combined within a psychobiologic prediction model, these variables accurately classified actual adherers and dropouts in approximately 80% of all cases and accounted for nearly 50% of the variance in adherence behavior. In addition, participants symptomatic with regard to coronary heart disease adhered for a shorter period of time (p < .01) than did those who were asymptomatic. Results did not support theoretical expectations related to the roles of attitude toward physical activity, self-perceptions of physical ability, or locus of health control in the adherence process. These data suggest that the assessment of self-motivation and body composition may substantially enhance the initial diagnosis of the dropout-prone exercise participant and may ultimately assist in adherence facilitation.

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Claire L. Palmer, Les Burwitz, Nickolas C. Smith and David Collins

This study uses naturalistic inquiry to identify fitness training facilitators and barriers experienced by elite netball players and to determine whether they were related to types of Fitness training behavior. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female national netball players. Inductive analysis revealed large variability between players’ fitness-training behaviors. Four case families of training behavior based on similar adoption and maintenance behaviors were identified. Cross-case analysis revealed that (a) self-motivation, enjoyment, attitude toward fitness training, and role of an England netball player were key facilitators of fitness training behavior; (b) facilitators and barriers appeared similar to those identified in the exercise-adherence literature; and (c) most facilitators and barriers could be viewed as operating through a revised theory of planned behavior (Maddux, 1993). Practical applications of the findings are discussed.

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Kent L. Granzin and Janeen E. Olsen

Using survey data from personal interviews, this study investigated the relationship between voluntary commitment to physical fitness and three categories of predictor variables. Voluntary commitment was explored conceptually and then operationalized as membership in a health club or organized exercise class. The principal findings are as follows: (a) involvement in fitness activities can be usefully considered in terms of voluntary commitment; (b) commitment is empirically related to demographics, attitudes, and both passive and active leisure pursuits; (c) persons who commit to physical fitness programs have the characteristics of youth; (d) persons who commit hold a self-image of fitness and athletic ability, have been influenced by friends on how to spend their time, and have a higher level of self-motivation and mental ability; and (e) persons who make a commitment to formal physical fitness programs are more involved in a variety of active and passive leisure pursuits.