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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew and Gemma Pearce

Using objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), this study tested the interaction between self-objectification, appearance evaluation, and self-esteem in predicting body satisfaction and mood states. Participants (N = 93) were physically active female university students. State self-objectification was manipulated by participants wearing tight revealing exercise attire (experimental condition) or baggy exercise clothes (control condition). Significant interactions emerged predicting depression, anger, fatness, and satisfaction with body shape and size. For participants in the self-objectification condition who had low (as opposed to high) appearance evaluation, low self-esteem was associated with high depression, anger, and fatness and low satisfaction with body shape and size. In contrast, for participants with high self-esteem, these mood and body satisfaction states were more favorable irrespective of their levels of appearance evaluation. For female exercisers, self-esteem-enhancing strategies may protect against some of the negative outcomes of self-objectification.

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Ivanka Prichard and Marika Tiggemann

This study aimed to identify predictors of self-objectification among exercising women. A brief questionnaire incorporating demographic questions and measures of self-objectification was completed by 133 new female fitness center members (aged 16 to 68 years) upon joining a fitness center and 12 months later. Results demonstrated that young women who remained fitness center members had greater self-objectification at 12 months than women who ceased their memberships. Furthermore, both initial age and reasons for exercise predicted subsequent increases in self-objectification. Specifically, being younger, as well as being more motivated by appearance-related reasons to exercise, predicted self-objectification at 12 months. These findings suggest that young women exercising within the fitness center environment may be at an increased risk of developing self-objectification, one of the predictors of negative body image and disordered eating.

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Rafael Monge-Rojas, Tamara Fuster-Baraona, Carlos Garita-Arce, Marta Sánchez-López, Uriyoán Colon-Ramos and Vanessa Smith-Castro


In Latin America, more than 80% of adolescent girls are physically inactive. Inactivity may be reinforced by female stereotypes and objectification in the Latin American sociocultural context.


We examined the influence of objectification on the adoption of an active lifestyle among 192 adolescents (14 and 17 years old) from urban and rural areas in Costa Rica. Analyses of 48 focus-groups sessions were grounded in Objectification Theory.


Vigorous exercises were gender-typed as masculine while girls had to maintain an aesthetic appearance at all times. Adolescents described how girls were anxious around the prospect of being shamed and sexually objectified during exercises. This contributed to a decrease in girls’ desire to engage in physical activities. Among males, there is also a budding tolerance of female participation in vigorous sports, as long as girls maintained a feminine stereotype outside their participation.


Self-objectification influenced Costa Rican adolescent girls’ decisions to participate in physical activities. Interventions may include: procuring safe environments for physical activity where girls are protected from fear of ridicule and objectification; sensitizing boys about girl objectification and fostering the adoption of a modern positive masculine and female identities to encourage girls’ participation in sports.

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Jacinta O’Brien, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and David Kirk

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week body-focused physical and health education module on self-objectification and social physique anxiety (SPA) in a sample of 85 Irish schoolgirls. Classrooms were randomly assigned to receive the experimental module or the standard curriculum. Participants completed pre- and postassessments of the value they placed on objectifying and nonobjectifying physical attributes, along with a measure of SPA. Girls in the experimental condition increased the value they placed on physical health and strength, decreased the value they placed on sex appeal, and showed no change in SPA. Girls in the control condition decreased the value they placed on body weight and physical fitness and experienced a significant increase in SPA. These results suggest that a body-focused module can decrease self-objectification and prevent developmentally linked increases in SPA.

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Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik and Colleen Daly

women’s body image. According to this theory, a chronic cultural emphasis on women’s appearance results in a phenomenon called self-objectification . Self-objectification (often referred to as body surveillance ) refers to the internalization of a third-person perspective on one’s body. In other words

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

:// Author website: Mind Over Appearance: Yoga in Physical Education Curriculum In girls and young women, the tendency to view oneself from a third-person perspective (self-objectification) increases with age. Self-objectification has been associated with

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Ariel J. Dimler, Kimberley McFadden and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh

, and potentially objectified ( Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997 ). Subsequently, women learn to internalize these views and may begin to treat themselves as objects to be evaluated, a process known as self-objectification. Self-objectification is problematic in that it can contribute to appearance anxiety

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Verity Booth, Alex Rowlands and James Dollman

: A Report by the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts . Canberra, Australia : Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia ; 1992 . 37. Slater A , Tiggemann M . Gender differences in adolescent sport participation, teasing and self-objectification and body image

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Krista Schroeder, Martha Y. Kubik, Jiwoo Lee, John R. Sirard and Jayne A. Fulkerson

-ecological predictors of participation and dropout in organised sports during childhood . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2014 ; 11 : 62 . PubMed ID: 24885978 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-62 24885978 10.1186/1479-5868-11-62 58. Slater A , Tiggemann M . Gender differences in adolescent sport participation, teasing, self-objectification

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Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty and Alissa Haedt-Matt

– 120 . doi:10.1037/1524-9220.4.2.111 10.1037/1524-9220.4.2.111 Morry , M.M. , & Staska , S.L. ( 2001 ). Magazine exposure: Internalization, self-objectification, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction in male and female university students . Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 33 , 269