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Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Hassan M. Elsangedy

responses during exercise should be explored ( Dalle Grave et al., 2011 ; DaSilva et al., 2009 ; Ekkekakis & Lind, 2006 ; Mattsson, Larsson, & Rössner, 1997 ). In this regard, several studies have highlighted the potential benefits of self-paced walking for individuals with obesity due to lower physical

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Silvia Varela, José M. Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez and Carlos Ayán

finished the intervention. The comparison between the initial and final results obtained after the administration of the tests indicated that self-paced cycling had a significant impact on the participants’ global cognition and attention, visual scanning, and processing speed. The ANOVA showed that self-paced

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Maxime Deshayes, Corentin Clément-Guillotin and Raphaël Zory

of sex stereotype induction on physical performance for a task that does not require technical skill. We used an endurance task that can be encountered in daily life: a self-paced cycling task. In addition to recording power output during the cycling task, challenge appraisals were also investigated

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Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens and Fred Paas

seated rest and self-paced cycling on a desk bike in preadolescent children. The present study included several cognitive tests measuring cognitive control (ie, inhibition, visuospatial, and verbal working memory). On the basis of previous literature, it was expected that cognitive control was unaffected

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David N. Ellis, Pamela J. Cress and Charles R. Spellman

This report describes an effort to train adolescents and young adults with mental retardation to modify their rates of pedaling exercycles during 10-min self-paced exercise sessions in a public school setting using commercially available heart rate (HR) monitors. A signal sounded when participants’ heart rates fell outside their predetermined cardiorespiratory conditioning ranges. During Study 1 most participants consistently avoided the alarm by pedaling at rates that maintained their HRs above their criterion levels. Study 2 included a more intensive warm-up period on the treadmill. All subjects but one consistently responded to the signal, maintaining HRs within the criterion range. Two of the participants in Study 2 were exposed to a positive reinforcement condition, with music contingent on maintaining HRs above a preset lower limit. Two subjects participated in maintenance phases and continued to exhibit relatively high HRs during exercise in the absence of signals from the HR monitor.

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Daniel S. Rooks, Bernard J. Ransil and Wilson C. Hayes

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of 16 weeks of self-paced resistance training or walking protocols on neuromotor and functional parameters in active, community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-two sequentially recruited older adults were randomly assigned to one of two exercise groups: self-paced resistance training and self-paced walking. Static and dynamic balance, upper and lower extremity reaction times, muscle strength, and stairclimbing speed were measured before and immediately after 16 weeks of exercise. Preliminary data showed that 16 weeks of self-paced. progressive, lower body resistance training improved balance (one-legged stance with eyes open, 68%). reaction time (10%), muscle strength (160%), and stair climbing speed (28%), while a self-paced walking program improved balance (one-legged stance with eyes open, 51%), stair climbing speed (16%), and in certain circumstances muscle strength (25%), in active, community-dwelling older adults.

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David M. Williams

The article reviews research relevant to a proposed conceptual model of exercise adherence that integrates the dual mode model and hedonic theory. Exercise intensity is posited to influence affective response to exercise via interoceptive (e.g., ventila-tory drive) and cognitive (e.g., perceived autonomy) pathways; affective response to exercise is posited to influence exercise adherence via anticipated affective response to future exercise. The potential for self-paced exercise to enhance exercise adherence is examined in the context of the proposed model and suggestions are given for future research. Further evidence in support of self-paced exercise could have implications for exercise prescription, especially among overweight, sedentary adults, who are most in need of interventions that enhance adherence to exercise programs.

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David M. Williams, Shira Dunsiger, Jessica A. Emerson, Chad J. Gwaltney, Peter M. Monti and Robert Miranda Jr.

Affective response to exercise may mediate the effects of self-paced exercise on exercise adherence. Fiftynine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (body mass index: 25.0–39.9) adults (ages 18–65) were randomly assigned to self-paced (but not to exceed 76% maximum heart rate) or prescribed moderate intensity exercise (64–76% maximum heart rate) in the context of otherwise identical 6-month print-based exercise promotion programs. Frequency and duration of exercise sessions and affective responses (good/bad) to exercise were assessed via ecological momentary assessment throughout the 6-month program. A regression-based mediation model was used to estimate (a) effects of experimental condition on affective response to exercise (path a = 0.20, SE = 0.28, f 2 = 0.02); (b) effects of affective response on duration/latency of the next exercise session (path b = 0.47, SE = 0.25, f 2 = 0.04); and (c) indirect effects of experimental condition on exercise outcomes via affective response (path ab = 0.11, SE = 0.06, f 2 = 0.10). Results provide modest preliminary support for a mediational pathway linking self-paced exercise, affective response, and exercise adherence.

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James S. Hogg, James G. Hopker and Alexis R. Mauger


The novel self-paced maximal-oxygen-uptake (VO2max) test (SPV) may be a more suitable alternative to traditional maximal tests for elite athletes due to the ability to self-regulate pace. This study aimed to examine whether the SPV can be administered on a motorized treadmill.


Fourteen highly trained male distance runners performed a standard graded exercise test (GXT), an incline-based SPV (SPVincline), and a speed-based SPV (SPVspeed). The GXT included a plateau-verification stage. Both SPV protocols included 5 × 2-min stages (and a plateau-verification stage) and allowed for self-pacing based on fixed increments of rating of perceived exertion: 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20. The participants varied their speed and incline on the treadmill by moving between different marked zones in which the tester would then adjust the intensity.


There was no significant difference (P = .319, ES = 0.21) in the VO2max achieved in the SPVspeed (67.6 ± 3.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 65.6–69.7 mL · kg−1 · min−1) compared with that achieved in the GXT (68.6 ± 6.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 65.1–72.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Participants achieved a significantly higher VO2max in the SPVincline (70.6 ± 4.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 68.1–73.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1) than in either the GXT (P = .027, ES = 0.39) or SPVspeed (P = .001, ES = 0.76).


The SPVspeed protocol produces VO2max values similar to those obtained in the GXT and may represent a more appropriate and athlete-friendly test that is more oriented toward the variable speed found in competitive sport.

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Robert N. Singer

To execute flawlessly and automatically in sports competition is the goal of any serious athlete. Automaticity suggests nonconscious attention to the act itself while executing, and not being aware of and therefore vulnerable to external and internal distractors. Self-paced sports and events in sports allow time for preparing to perform in a stable and predictable situation. More recently, cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures associated with developing and realizing proficiency in such acts have become increasingly identified. Many themes associated with these topics appear in the scholarly literature: conscious vs. nonconscious, controlled vs. automatic, voluntary vs. involuntary, explicit vs. implicit, systematic vs. heuristic, willed vs. nonwilled, aware vs. unaware, internal vs. externally oriented, and intentional vs. unintentional behaviors. Implications are being made about ways to influence the learning process by modeling expertise behaviors, as well as enhancing the performance of elite athletes. Of particular importance is the immediate preperformance and during-performance routine that serves as a mechanism for self-regulation of arousal level, thoughts, performance expectancy, and attentional focus.