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Mark R. Leary

This article examines the effects of self-presentational processes on four aspects of sport and exercise: the motivation to engage in physical activity, people's choices of physical activities and the contexts in which they engage in these activities, the quality of athletic performance, and people's emotional reactions to engaging in sport and exercise.

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David E. Conroy, Robert W. Motl, and Evelyn G. Hall

Self-presentation has become an increasingly popular topic in exercise and sport psychology, yet few instruments exist to measure this construct. This paper describes two validation studies conducted on the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire (SPEQ), a paper-and-pencil instrument based on Leary and Kowalski’s (1990) two-component model of impression management. The SPEQ was designed to assess impression motivation (IM) and impression construction (IC) in exercise environments. The first study employed exploratory factor analysis to reduce a pool of 125 content-representative items to a subset of 41 items forming the hypothesized two-factor model of IM and IC. In the second study, the 41 items were further reduced using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in separate samples, and the reduced SPEQ also conformed to the IM and IC factor structure. The second study also provided initial evidence to support the convergent and discriminant validity of the SPEQ with theoretically salient constructs such as body surveillance, perceived physical ability, physical self-presentation confidence, social desirability, and social physique anxiety.

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Jonathan E. Howe

men, who are extremely visible on HWIs. These examples illustrate an overarching problem related to the study of Black male college athletes (BMCAs) and the topic of self-presentation—behaviors or processes an individual employs to control the impressions and perceptions of others ( Leary, 1996

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle, and Ann-Marie Gibson

intervention using constructs drawn together, which have been previously identified as predictors of physical activity in adolescent samples. These include physical activity identity ( Rhodes, Kaushal, & Quinlan, 2016 ) and physical activity self-presentational motives ( Howle, Dimmock, Whipp, & Jackson, 2015b

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Hailey A. Harris and Natasha T. Brison

the time frame of their life. For female athletes in particular, branding and self-presentation styles may differ from those used by male athletes ( Lobpries et al., 2018 ; Smith & Sanderson, 2015 ) as women may have challenges not experienced by men due to gender-based societal expectations. For

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Wonyul Bae, Kim Hahn, and Minseok Cho

identity freely to their fans that is typically not showcased in mainstream media reporting ( Sanderson, 2011 , 2013 , 2014 ). The focus of this research is on the athlete’s self-presentation using social media based on Goffman’s ( 1959 ) self-presentation theory. Athletes may express their personal

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Erin McGowan, Harry Prapavessis, and Natascha Wesch

The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the link between self-presentational concerns and competitive anxiety. Specifically, we examined (a) associations among self-presentational concerns and competitive state anxiety dimensional symptom responses using the modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2; Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990) and (b) whether self-presentational concerns mediate trait–state anxiety relationships. In addressing these matters, we also examined the factor structure and composition of the Self-Presentation in Sport Questionnaire (SPSQ; Wilson & Eklund, 1998). Results showed that self-presentational concerns were positively associated with intensity and frequency dimensional symptoms and negatively associated with direction symptoms. Results also showed that self-presentational concerns demonstrated consistently higher associations with the cognitive component and the intensity symptom of the CSAI-2 state measures. Results showed no support for the notion that self-presentational concerns mediate the trait–state anxiety relationship. When examining the factor structure and composition of the SPSQ, the results from two independent athlete samples support the tenability of an abbreviated 21-item four-factor model. Thus the newly constituted scale is recommended for measuring self-presentational concerns in sport.

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Edward K. Sadalla, Darwyn E. Linder, and Bradley A. Jenkins

This study was designed to explore cognitive and motivational factors that underlie preferences for particular sports. Based upon self-presentational theory, it was assumed that sports constitute a symbol system that communicates something about the participant's personality and identity. Individuals may learn to prefer those sports whose symbolism is appropriate to their desired social identity. In order to explore this premise, subjects were asked to rate the participants of five different sports (bowling, skiing, golf, tennis, motocross) on 70 personality and identity dimensions. Results indicated that stereotypes concerning the participants in each sport are widely shared, and that specific identity dimensions are associated with each sport.

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Philip Wilson and Robert C. Eklund

The purpose of this investigation was to examine Leary’s (1992) contention that competitive anxiety revolves around the self-presentational implications of sport competition. Intercollegiate athletes (N = 199) completed inventories assessing competitive trait anxiety and self-presentational concerns. Principal-axis factor analysis with direct oblim rotation of self-presentational concern items produced an interpretable four-factor solution accounting for 62% of the variance. These factors were interpreted to represent self-presentational concerns about Performance/Composure Inadequacies, Appearing Fatigued/Lacking Energy, Physical Appearance, and Appearing Athletically Untalented. Correlational and structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-presentational concern was more strongly associated with cognitive rather than somatic anxiety, and that substantial portions of variance in competitive anxiety could be accounted for by self-presentational concern variables. The results of this investigation provide support for Leary’s (1992) assertion regarding the relationship between self-presentational concern and competitive anxiety.

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Christopher Mesagno, Jack T. Harvey, and Christopher M. Janelle

Whether self-presentation is involved in the choking process remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of self-presentation concerns on the frequency of choking within the context of a recently proposed self-presentation model. Experienced field hockey players (N = 45) were randomly assigned to one of five groups (i.e., performance-contingent monetary incentive, video camera placebo, video camera self-presentation, audience, or combined pressure), before taking penalty strokes in low- and high-pressure phases. Results indicated that groups exposed to self-presentation manipulations experienced choking, whereas those receiving motivational pressure treatments decreased anxiety and increased performance under pressure. Furthermore, cognitive state anxiety mediated the relationship between the self-presentation group and performance. These findings provide quantitative support for the proposed self-presentation model of choking, while also holding implications for anxiety manipulations in future sport psychology research.