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Jude Buckley and Linda D. Cameron

Guided by social cognitive theory (SCT), we investigated whether exercise selfregulatory efficacy beliefs can be activated nonconsciously in individuals experienced and inexperienced in exercise self-regulation, and whether these beliefs are automatically associated with exercise self-regulation processes. The study used a 2 (Exercise Self-Regulation Experience Group) × 3 (Prime Condition) between-subjects design in which individuals experienced and inexperienced in exercise self-regulation were randomly assigned to receive subliminal, supraliminal, or no priming of exercise self-regulatory efficacy beliefs. Participants completed hypothetical diary entries, which were assessed for exercise self-regulatory efficacy and self-regulation expressions using content analyses with a SCT coding system and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis program. For both exercise self-regulation experience groups, self-efficacy priming led to more expressions of low exercise self-regulatory efficacy and dysfunctional exercise self-regulation strategies compared with the control prime. For participants experienced in exercise self-regulation, supraliminal priming (vs. control priming) led to more expressions of high exercise self-regulatory efficacy and functional exercise self-regulation strategies. For the experienced groups, priming led to automaticity of exercise expressions compared with the control condition. For inexperienced participants in the subliminal prime condition, priming led to automaticity of self-regulatory efficacy beliefs and work-related goals compared with the control condition. Automatic activation of exercise self-regulatory efficacy and exercise self-regulation processes suggests that self-regulation of exercise behavior can occur nonconsciously.

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Brittany N. Semenchuk, Shaelyn M. Strachan and Michelle Fortier

Most Canadians are not active enough ( Colley et al., 2011 ; Statistics Canada, 2016 ) to achieve health benefits ( Lee, Artero, Sui, & Blair, 2010 ). This trend of inactivity may be due, in part, to the self-regulatory effort required to adhere to exercise ( Mermelstein & Revenson, 2013 ). Self-regulation

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray

performance of professional cyclists on the mentally fatiguing cognitive task led us to suggest that professional athletes may possess greater capacity for self-regulation than recreational athletes ( Martin et al., 2016 ). Self-regulation refers to the act of exerting control over one’s behavior and has been

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

with more favorable implicit attitudes exercised more on average than those with unfavorable attitudes, even after controlling for forms of explicit attitudes such as affective and instrumental attitudes. Self-Regulation and Implicit Attitudes Effortful control, an important component of self

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Julie S. Son, Deborah L. Kerstetter, Andrew J. Mowen and Laura L. Payne

There is a dearth of research conducted on the possible relationship between the global self-regulatory process of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) and leisure-time physical activity. Even less is known about SOC’s relationship to other social-cognitive factors known to influence physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the relationships between global self-regulation, constraint self-regulation, outcome expectations, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle-aged and older adults (N = 271). One of the objectives was to test the interactive effect of global self-regulation and outcome expectations on constraint self-regulation. Another objective was to test the interactive effect of global self-regulation and outcome expectations on multiple measures of leisure-time physical activity. The authors found significant interactions between global self-regulation and outcome expectations for constraint self-regulation and duration of leisure-time physical activity. They discuss these results in terms of their implications for health-promotion programs to increase the leisure-time physical activity of people 50 years of age and older.

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Kylie McNeill, Natalie Durand-Bush and Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre

’s psychological functioning ( Mattern & Bauer, 2014 ) and that is amenable to interventions (e.g.,  Callary & Durand-Bush, 2008 ; Collins & Durand-Bush, 2010 ; Dubuc-Charbonneau & Durand-Bush, 2015 ) is self-regulation. Self-regulation reflects one’s capacity to generate, manage, and adapt one’s thoughts

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Daniel S. Kirschenbaum

This paper attempts to demonstrate the interdependence of research and theorizing on self-regulation and sport psychology. The process of maximizing sport performance was conceptualized as a self-regulatory problem. A five-stage model of self-regulation was presented to show the usefulness of this perspective. In particular, the model of self-regulation applied to this problem indicates that athletes should: specify their goals, establish commitments to change, manage their physical and social environments to facilitate pursuit of goals, execute the components of self-regulation to achieve goals (self-monitor, self-evaluate, self-consequate), and attempt to generalize changes achieved via the development of obsessive-compulsive styles of self-regulation. Recent findings in the self-regulation literature were reviewed to show how this conceptualization should be refined. Several applications in sport psychology were then described. This analysis supports the conclusion that (a) sport psychology provides an excellent medium for testing principles of self-regulation, and conversely, (b) self-regulatory models and principles can lead to effective interventions in sport psychology.

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Michelle Renee Umstattd, Rob Motl, Sara Wilcox, Ruth Saunders and Melissa Watford

Background:

Theoretically, self-regulatory strategies (eg, goal setting, self-monitoring) are an important influence of behavior change, but very little research has examined the relationship between self-regulation and physical activity (PA) behavior. Petosa’s (1993) 43-item PA self-regulation scale (PASR-43) affords the opportunity for studying this construct in the context of PA; however the PASR-43 has not been tested for structural aspects of validity. Therefore, this study examines the structural validity of the PASR-43 in older adults.

Methods:

The structural validity of the PASR-43 was tested in a large sample of older adults from North and South Carolina and Ohio (N = 460) using maximum likelihood estimation and confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS 5.0.

Results:

The original 6-factor model for the PASR-43 scale did not represent an acceptable fit to the data (x2 = 4732.25, df = 845, P < .0001, RMSEA = 0.10, NNFI = 0.67, CFI = 0.71). Based on a post hoc specification search, iterative model modifications resulted in a 12-item PA self-regulation scale (PASR-12) that represented an excellent fit to the data (x2 = 70.75, df = 39, P = .001, RMSEA = 0.04, NNFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.99).

Conclusions:

The PASR-12 provides a concise and valid measure of PA self-regulation for use with older adults. Future studies should cross-validate the PASR-12 and examine invariance across time and between age, ethnic, gender, and geographical groups.

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Nicole Dubuc-Charbonneau and Natalie Durand-Bush

Background:

The purpose of this study was to implement and assess the impact of a person-centered, feel-based self-regulation intervention on the stress, burnout, well-being, and self-regulation capacity of eight university student-athletes experiencing burnout. This was warranted given the negative outcomes associated with athlete burnout, the scarcity of burnout research focusing on student-athletes, and the lack of intervention research addressing burnout in sport.

Method:

A mixed methods design including questionnaires administered at four time points during the athletic season, pre- and postintervention interviews, and multiple intervention sessions was used.

Results:

Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that stress and burnout levels significantly decreased, and well-being and self-regulation capacity levels significantly increased as the intervention progressed. The qualitative data supported these findings.

Conclusion:

It appears that university student-athletes participating in this type of intervention can learn to effectively manage themselves and their environment to reduce adverse symptoms and improve optimal functioning.

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Gilles Kermarrec, John R. Todorovich and David S. Fleming

Research in educational psychology and sport psychology indicates that school achievement depends on students’ capacity to self-regulate their own learning processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-regulation components employed by students in a natural physical education setting. Twenty-three French students, 14 and 15 years old, were videotaped during their regular physical education class as their teachers taught them a new skill. The students then watched a recording of their performance and provided the researcher with a verbal description of their cognitive activity during the lesson. Verbal data were then analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data revealed that the students employed a 17-component self-regulation model while learning a new skill in the natural physical education context. Three teaching models that emerged for eliciting the identified self-regulation components among students are also discussed.