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Virginie Nicaise, Noe C. Crespo and Simon Marshall

Background:

Even when objective physical activity (PA) measures are preferred, many intervention studies with Latina women rely on self-reports because they are more feasible and the type and domain of PA is of interest.

Purpose:

This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ for detecting intervention-related changes in physical activity compared with accelerometer measurement among Latinas.

Methods:

In March 2007, a community sample of 94 women (mean age = 36.31 ± 9.1 yr; mean body mass index = 31.37 ± 7.13) participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention to increase moderate intensity physical activity (MPA). Participants completed the Spanish-language International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Sp-IPAQ; telephone, long form) and wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and postintervention.

Results:

Both the IPAQ and the ActiGraph accelerometer detected intervention-related increases in MPA; however, these changes were largely uncorrelated. The IPAQ did not have acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity before and after the intervention when compared with objective assessments.

Conclusions:

Data suggest that it is important to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ with Spanish-speaking participants and further research is needed to accurately measure intervention effectiveness using self-reports of PA in Latinas.

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Virginie Nicaise, Simon Marshall and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

Evidence suggests that Latina women appear to be less physically active than women of other racial/ethnic groups. This study evaluated how different domains of physical activity (PA) contributed to overall levels of PA among low-income Latinas, the validity of Latinas’ self-reported PA, and potential moderators of self-report bias in PA.

Methods:

A community sample of 105 Latinas (mean age = 35.9 ± 9.0 years; mean body mass index = 31.6 ± 7.2) completed the long form Spanish-language version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), wore an accelerometer for seven days, and completed self-reported measures of acculturation and socioeconomic status.

Results:

Ninety-six percent of IPAQ-reported moderate-intensity PA (MPA) was accrued during household activities, with only 4% accrued during leisure time. Seventy-two percent of participants met national recommendations for PA using IPAQ data, but only 20% met recommendations when measured by accelerometer. When bouts of MPA lasting >10 min were included, 0% met recommendations. Age appeared to moderate self-report bias of vigorous PA, and there were nonsignificant trends for acculturation and income to moderate MPA and vigorous-intensity PA, respectively.

Conclusions:

Data suggest that it is important to measure household activity of Latinas, and that the IPAQ yield overestimates of self-report PA.

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Tim S. Olds, Kate Ridley, James Dollman and Carol A. Maher

This study examined the convergent validity of a computerized use of time diary (MARCA) relative to pedometry. Participants aged 9–16 years wore a pedometer and completed the MARCA. Comparing pedometer data and self-report data collected for the same day (n = 297 participants), the correlation (Spearman’s rho) with PAL was 0.54 and with MVPA was 0.50. Comparing mean daily step counts over 6–7 days with averaged self-report data collected on different days (n = 1713 participants) Spearman’s rho for PAL was 0.45 and for MVPA was 0.44. Thus, the MARCA showed validity similar or superior to most self-report instruments for young people.

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Nicola D. Ridgers, Lee E.F. Graves, Lawrence Foweather and Gareth Stratton

Understanding children’s physical activity (PA) patterns and the factors that may influence PA are important for developing interventions within this population. One hundred and ten children aged 9–10 years from 8 schools had their PA patterns assessed over 7 days. Physiological and self-report data were also collected. Multilevel analyses revealed that cardiorespiratory fitness was a consistent, significant and positive predictor of weekday and weekend PA, while the availability of home sedentary activities was a significant but negative predictor of PA. Since a range of variables were associated with PA levels, intervention developers should be cognizant of variables that may influence children’s activity.

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Marja Kokkonen

This study surveyed 155 gender and sexual minority (GSM) sport participants to examine 1) nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach in relation to psychological ill-being, and 2) differences in harassment due to gender and sexual orientation. Self-reported data from 93 females and 62 males was collected anonymously and analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlations and cross-tabulation with chi-square tests. Nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach was related to more frequent stress, psychosomatic symptoms and depressive symptoms only in male GSM sport participants. Undermining was related to more frequent depressive symptoms in males. There were no statistically significant gender differences in harassment. As for sexual orientation, there was a statistically significant association between verbal harassment by the coach and sexual orientation. The present findings have scientific, educational and clinical importance for sport psychologists involved in research, coach education and applied work.

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Britton W. Brewer and Robert Shillinglaw

This study evaluated the effects of a four-session psychological skills training (PST) workshop on self-reported knowledge, perceived importance, and use of goal setting, relaxation, imagery, and cognitive restructuring in a sample of male intercollegiate lacrosse players (n=49). In an interrupted time-series design with switching replications, subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Self-report data were collected on three occasions at 2-week intervals. Group 1 received PST during the first 2-week interval and Group 2 received PST during the second 2-week interval. The overall effectiveness of the PST workshop was supported by both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses. This study illustrates that controlled research can viably and ethically be conducted in applied sport settings. Limitations of the current study and directions for future PST outcome research are discussed.

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Juliette Stebbings, Ian M. Taylor, Christopher M. Spray and Nikos Ntoumanis

Embedded in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, we obtained self-report data from 418 paid and voluntary coaches from a variety of sports and competitive levels with the aim of exploring potential antecedents of coaches’ perceived autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors. Controlling for socially desirable responses, structural equation modeling revealed that greater job security and opportunities for professional development, and lower work–life conflict were associated with psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, was related to an adaptive process of psychological well-being and perceived autonomy support toward athletes. In contrast, higher work–life conflict and fewer opportunities for development were associated with a distinct maladaptive process of thwarted psychological needs, psychological ill-being, and perceived controlling interpersonal behavior. The results highlight how the coaching context may impact upon coaches’ psychological health and their interpersonal behavior toward athletes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the independence of adaptive and maladaptive processes within the self-determination theory paradigm.

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, Nathalie Vissers and Jan Seghers

Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment. Self-reported data were gathered from 472 Flemish (northern part of Belgium) students in 6th grade (2009) and again in 8th grade (2011). Mediation analyses showed that an increase in perceived need support from the PE teacher was related to an increase in AMPE (boys: β = .42; girls: β = .50). In boys, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived competence (β = .08). In girls, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived autonomy (β = .12), perceived competence (β = .14), and perceived relatedness (β = .05). This study shows that PE teachers should be need-supportive to maintain a good quality of motivation in students.

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Wendy J. Brown, Kerry Mummery, Elizabeth Eakin and Grant Schofield

Objectives:

To describe the effectiveness of a multi-strategy physical activity (PA) intervention.

Methods:

Self-report data from random samples were collected prior to and following intervention. Social marketing, healthcare provider, and environmental strategies were concurrently implemented with a central coordinating theme of “10,000 Steps Rockhampton.”

Results:

There was evidence of significant project reach and awareness. The downward trend in PA seen in the comparison community (48.3% to 41.9% “active”) was not evident in Rockhampton. Women were the “early adopters” in this project; with an increase of 5% (95% CI: –0.6, 10.6) in the percent categorized as “active” (compared with decreases among women in the comparison community and among men in both communities).

Conclusions:

High levels of project awareness, combined with modest increases in activity levels in women, demonstrate initial project effects. Longer term interventions, focusing on sustainable individual, social, and environmental change strategies are needed to maintain and improve this result.

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle and Ann-Marie Gibson

This study examined whether teachers’ use of transformational teaching behaviors, as perceived by adolescent girls, in physical education would predict girls’ moderate to vigorous physical activity via mediated effects of physical activity self-presentation motives, physical activity identity, and physical education class engagement. Self-report data were acquired from 273 Scottish high school girls in Grades S1–S3 (the equivalent of Grades 7–9 in North America) at 2 time points separated by 1 week. Significant predictive pathways were found from transformational teaching to girls’ moderate to vigorous physical activity via mediated effects of acquisitive self-presentation motives and physical activity identity. This preliminary study provides a novel contribution to the research area by showing how previously unrelated psychosocial constructs work together to predict adolescent girls’ moderate to vigorous physical activity. Results are discussed in relation to existing literature and future research directions.