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Serkan Usgu, Günseli Usgu, Fatma Uygur and Yavuz Yakut

and to determine the correlation between the measure of functional performance and the self-reported outcomes. Wilcoxon paired tests were used to test the nonparametric data. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS (version 17.0; IBM Inc., Chicago, IL) with the level of significance set at

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Helene Buch Pedersen, Morten Helmer-Nielsen, Karin Brochstedt Dieperink and Birte Østergaard

Background:

Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aimed to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in 3 EOP modules of different intensities.

Methods:

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1152 former participants in EOP between July 2005 and May 2007 in 2 Danish counties. Physical activity was measured as number of days with a minimum 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous activity.

Results:

Seventy-five percent (n = 854) returned the questionnaire. Of these, 36% reported being physically active ≥ 5 days/week. Comparing leisure-time activities before EOP 29% was sedentary vs. 15% (P < 0 .01) after, moderate + hard leisure-time activities was 7% before vs. 19% after EOP (P < 0 .01). Time postintervention did not influence the numbers reporting to be physical active negatively.

Conclusions:

This study in community-dwelling adults with chronic diseases participating in EOP finds that approximately one-third reported being physically active in the long term postintervention, but no differences between the modalities were found.

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Brent I. Smith, Denice Curtis and Carrie L. Docherty

posttest. For the self-reported outcome variable, no test-by-group interaction was demonstrated for the FAAM-ADL subscale score ( F 1,24  = 2.12, P  = .16). However, we found a significant test-by-group interaction for the FAAM-sport subscale score ( F 1,24  = 15.37, P  < .01). Participants in the

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Kathryn A. Webster and Phillip A. Gribble

Context:

Functional rehabilitation is often employed for ankle instability, but there is little evidence to support its efficacy, especially in those with chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Objective:

To review studies using both functional rehabilitation interventions and functional measurements to establish the effectiveness of functional rehabilitation for both postural control and self-reported outcomes in those with CAI.

Evidence Acquisition:

The databases of Medline, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed were searched between the years 1988 and 2008. Inclusion criteria required articles to have used a clinical research trial involving at least 1 functional rehabilitation intervention, have at least 1 outcome measure of function and/or functional performance, and to have used at least 1 group of subjects who reported either repeated lateral ankle sprains or episodes of “giving way.” The term functional was operationally defined as dynamic, closed-kinetic-chain activity other than quiet standing.

Evidence Synthesis:

Six articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed used multiple functional means for assessment and training, with a wobble board or similar device being the most common. Despite effect sizes being inconsistent for measures of dynamic postural control, all interventions resulted in improvements. Significant improvements and strong effect sizes were demonstrated for self-reported outcomes.

Conclusions:

The reviewed studies using functional rehabilitation interventions and functional assessment tools were associated with improved ankle stability for both postural control and self-reported function, but more studies may be needed with more consistent effect sizes and confidence intervals to make a definitive conclusion.

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Heidi Y. Perkins, Andrew J. Waters, George P. Baum and Karen M. Basen-Engquist

Studies have shown that expectations about exercise outcomes are associated with exercise behavior. Outcome expectations can be assessed by self-report questionnaires, but a new method—the expectancy accessibility task—may convey unique information about outcome expectations that is less subject to respondent biases. This method involves measuring the reaction time to endorse or reject an outcome We examined the relationship of self-reported outcome expectations and expectancy accessibility tasks in a pilot study of sedentary endometrial cancer survivors (N = 20). After measuring outcome expectations and expectancy accessibility, participants were given an exercise program and asked to monitor exercise for 7 days using diaries and accelerometers. Analyses revealed no relationship between outcome expectation scores and exercise, but shorter response times to endorse positive exercise outcomes was related to more exercise in the next week (p = .02).

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Ariane Bélanger-Gravel, Marilie Laferté, Frédéric Therrien, François Lagarde and Lise Gauvin

Background: Evidence regarding the impact of physical activity (PA) communication campaigns among children is scarce. This study was aimed at examining the reach of the WIXX campaign and its impact on children’s PA beliefs and behaviors. Methods: This study adopted a pre–posttest design. Children (9–13 y old) were recruited using a random digit dialing procedure. Self-reported outcomes included PA beliefs, trying new PAs, and meeting PA guidelines. WIXX awareness and survey periods were the treatment variables. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the main effect of treatment variables and the time-specific impact of WIXX. Results: The campaign reached 80.3% of the children. Fully adjusted results showed that girls with high (odd ratio = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–2.0) and moderate (odd ratio = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.8) awareness were more likely to have tried new PAs. Results from the sensitivity analyses suggested that this positive result was due to strategies implemented during the second year of the campaign. No other significant association between exposure and outcomes was observed. Conclusions: The WIXX campaign was successful in reaching a significant proportion of children. Although some encouraging results were observed among girls, WIXX awareness was not associated with changes on the examined outcomes among boys.

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Leigh F. Callahan, Rebecca J. Cleveland, Mary Altpeter and Betsy Hackney

Objective:

Evaluate effectiveness of the Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi Program for community participants with arthritis.

Methods:

343 individuals were randomized to either the intervention or wait-list control group. Performance and self-reported outcome (SRO) measures were assessed at baseline and eight weeks. At one year, SROs only were assessed. Adjusted means were determined using regression models adjusting for covariates, and effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

Results:

Average participant age was 66 years, 87% were female, and 87% were Caucasian. Among 284 (83%) participants who returned at eight weeks, balance by reach (ES = 0.30) and helplessness, sleep, and role participation satisfaction (ES = 0.24–0.54) improved significantly; pain, fatigue, and stiffness improvement (ES = 0.15–0.23) approached significance. No change was noted in mobility, lower extremity strength, or single-leg stance balance. At one year, improvements in pain, fatigue, stiffness, helplessness, and role participation satisfaction at eight weeks were maintained; 30% continued tai chi practice.

Conclusion:

Moderate effectiveness of the Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi Program was confirmed.

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Jennifer S. Howard, Carl G. Mattacola, David R. Mullineaux, Robert A. English and Christian Lattermann

Context:

It is well established that autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) can require extended recovery postoperatively; however, little information exists to provide clinicians and patients with a timeline for anticipated function during the first year after ACI.

Objective:

To document the recovery of functional performance of activities of daily living after ACI.

Patients:

ACI patients (n = 48, 29 male; 35.1 ± 8.0 y).

Intervention:

All patients completed functional tests (weight-bearing squat, walk-across, sit-to-stand, step-up/over, and forward lunge) using the NeuroCom long force plate (Clackamas, OR) and completed patient-reported outcome measures (International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 mo postoperatively.

Main Outcome Measures:

A covariance pattern model was used to compare performance and self-reported outcome across time and provide a timeline for functional recovery after ACI.

Results:

Participants demonstrated significant improvement in walk-across stride length from baseline (42.0% ± 8.9% height) at 6 (46.8% ± 8.1%) and 12 mo (46.6% ± 7.6%). Weight bearing on the involved limb during squatting at 30°, 60°, and 90° was significantly less at 3 mo than presurgery. Step-up/over time was significantly slower at 3 mo (1.67 ± 0.69 s) than at baseline (1.49 ± 0.33 s), 6 mo (1.51 ± 0.36 s), and 12 mo (1.40 ± 0.26 s). Step-up/over lift-up index was increased from baseline (41.0% ± 11.3% body weight [BW]) at 3 (45.0% ± 11.7% BW), 6 (47.0% ± 11.3% BW), and 12 mo (47.3% ± 11.6% BW). Forward-lunge time was decreased at 3 mo (1.51 ± 0.44 s) compared with baseline (1.39 ± 0.43 s), 6 mo (1.32 ± 0.05 s), and 12 mo (1.27 ± 0.06). Similarly, forward-lunge impact force was decreased at 3 mo (22.2% ± 1.4% BW) compared with baseline (25.4% ± 1.5% BW). The WOMAC demonstrated significant improvements at 3 mo. All patient-reported outcomes were improved from baseline at 6 and 12 mo postsurgery.

Conclusions:

Patients' perceptions of improvements may outpace physical changes in function. Decreased function for at least the first 3 mo after ACI should be anticipated, and improvement in performance of tasks requiring weight-bearing knee flexion, such as squatting, going down stairs, or lunging, may not occur for a year or more after surgery.

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Kate N. Jochimsen, Margaret R. Pelton, Carl G. Mattacola, Laura J. Huston, Emily K. Reinke, Kurt P. Spindler, Christian Lattermann and Cale A. Jacobs

6-month self-reported outcomes following ACLR. Although previously found to be related with postoperative outcomes for patients with chronic orthopedic conditions, 33 , 34 elevated pain catastrophizing appears to be a natural response following acute ACL injury. As pain catastrophizing is not fixed

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Erika Rees-Punia, Alicia Holloway, David Knauft and Michael D. Schmidt

school gardening on physical activity and sedentary time. Further, among the few existing physical activity studies, many have relied on self-reported outcomes. 26 One recent group randomized controlled trial in New York state found that children from 6 schools selected to receive a garden had a greater