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Jessica L. Schaefer and Michelle A. Sandrey


A dynamic-balance-training (DBT) program supplemented with the Graston instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (GISTM) technique has not been evaluated collectively as a treatment in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI).


To examine the effects of GISTM in conjunction with a DBT program on outcomes associated with CAI, including pain and disability, range of motion (ROM), and dynamic postural control.


Pretest/posttest, repeated measures.


High school and a Division I mid-Atlantic university.


Thirty-six healthy, physically active individuals (5 female, 31 male; age 17.7 ± 1.9 y; height 175.3 ± 14.6 cm) with a history of CAI as determined by an ankle-instability questionnaire volunteered to be in this study.


Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: both treatments (DBT/GISTM, n = 13), DBT and a sham GISTM treatment (DBT/GISTM-S, n = 12), or DBT and control—no GISTM (DBT/C, n = 11). All groups participated in a 4-wk DBT program consisting of low-impact and dynamic activities that was progressed from week to week. The DBT/GISTM and DBT/GISTM-S groups received the GISTM treatment or sham treatment twice a week for 8 min before performing the DBT program. Pretest and posttest measurements included the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), FAAM Sport, the visual analog scale (VAS), ankle ROM in 4 directions, and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in 3 directions.

Main Outcome Measures:

FAAM and FAAM-Sport scores, VAS, goniometric ROM (plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, eversion), and SEBT (anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral).


Subjects in all groups posttest demonstrated an increase in FAAM, FAAM Sport, ROM, and SEBT in all directions but not in VAS, which decreased. No other results were significant.


For subjects with CAI, dynamic postural control, ROM, pain and disability improved pretest to posttest regardless of group membership, with the largest effects found in most measures in the DBT/GISTM group.

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Elizabeth Chmelo, Barbara Nicklas, Cralen Davis, Gary D. Miller, Claudine Legault and Stephen Messier


To assess correlates of physical activity, and to examine the relationship between physical activity and physical functioning, in 160 older (66 ± 6 years old), overweight/obese (mean body mass index = 33.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2), sedentary (less than 30 mins of activity, 3 days a week) individuals with knee osteoarthritis.


Physical activity was measured with accelerometers and by self-report. Physical function was assessed by 6-min walk distance, knee strength, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Pain and perceived function were measured by questionnaires. Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to analyze the relationships.


The mean number of steps taken per day was 6209 and the average PAEE was 237 ± 124 kcal/day. Participants engaged in 131 ± 39 minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and 10.6 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MPA/VPA). Total steps/day, PAEE, and minutes of MPA/VPA were all negatively correlated with age. The 6-min walk distance and lower extremity function were better in those who had higher total steps/day, higher PAEE, higher minutes of MPA/VPA, and a higher PASE score.


This study demonstrates that a population who has higher levels of spontaneous activity have better overall physical function than those who engage in less activity.

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

from the validated Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Questionnaire (SF-36; Brown, 2003 ; Stewart, Hays, & Ware, 1988 ) was used to establish self-reported physical function. The Ewart self-efficacy scale, developed in cardiac patients ( Ewart, Stewart, Gillilan, & Keleman, 1986 ; Ewart

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Ryan McCann, Kyle Kosik, Masafumi Terada and Phillip Gribble

. All participants underwent evaluations in the following order: self-reported physical function, pain, edema, dorsiflexion ROM, ligamentous laxity, dynamic postural control. Patient Evaluation Self-reported physical function assessment At RTP, we assessed self-reported physical function of the involved

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Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger

methods were correlated ( p  < .05) with less fatigue, greater self-reported physical function, and greater satisfaction with social roles, as well as faster gait and timed chair stands. Table 2 Mean, SD , Median, and Range of Scores in Each Tertile for PROMIS-29 Domains and Physical Performance Measures

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Ryan S. McCann, Kyle B. Kosik, Masafumi Terada and Phillip A. Gribble

evaluated self-reported physical function of the involved limb with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activity of daily living (FAAM-ADL) and sport (FAAM-S) subscales. We measured involved ankle pain in a non-weight-bearing (NWB) position, in single-leg stance (SLS), and after walking four steps using a

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Emmanuel Frimpong, Joanne A. McVeigh and Rebecca M. Meiring

.1186/1471-2288-7-10 10.1186/1471-2288-7-10 Sleith . ( 2012 ). Critical appraisal: Notes and checklists . Retrieved from Terwee , C.B. , van der Slikke , R.M.A. , van Lummel , R.C. , Benink , R.J. , Meijers , W.G.H. , & de Vet , H.C.W. ( 2006 ). Self-reported

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Venurs H.Y. Loh, Jerome N. Rachele, Wendy J. Brown, Fatima Ghani and Gavin Turrell

-skewed and included outlier values which were top-coded to 840 minutes (equivalent to 2 h walking each day). 37 Level of WfR per week was categorized as none (0 min), low (1–149 min), and moderate/high (≥150 min). Self-Reported Physical Function This was measured using the 10-item physical functioning scale

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Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh

, ACTN3 (RR) genotype, UCP2 (GG) genotype, IL-6-174 (GG), TNF-α-308 (GG), and IL-10-1082 (GG) genotypes all predicted significantly superior adaptations for PPTs or self-reported physical function after prescribed exercise or in those with higher levels of PA. However, not all studies reported