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Jessica L. Schaefer and Michelle A. Sandrey


A dynamic-balance-training (DBT) program supplemented with the Graston instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (GISTM) technique has not been evaluated collectively as a treatment in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI).


To examine the effects of GISTM in conjunction with a DBT program on outcomes associated with CAI, including pain and disability, range of motion (ROM), and dynamic postural control.


Pretest/posttest, repeated measures.


High school and a Division I mid-Atlantic university.


Thirty-six healthy, physically active individuals (5 female, 31 male; age 17.7 ± 1.9 y; height 175.3 ± 14.6 cm) with a history of CAI as determined by an ankle-instability questionnaire volunteered to be in this study.


Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: both treatments (DBT/GISTM, n = 13), DBT and a sham GISTM treatment (DBT/GISTM-S, n = 12), or DBT and control—no GISTM (DBT/C, n = 11). All groups participated in a 4-wk DBT program consisting of low-impact and dynamic activities that was progressed from week to week. The DBT/GISTM and DBT/GISTM-S groups received the GISTM treatment or sham treatment twice a week for 8 min before performing the DBT program. Pretest and posttest measurements included the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), FAAM Sport, the visual analog scale (VAS), ankle ROM in 4 directions, and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in 3 directions.

Main Outcome Measures:

FAAM and FAAM-Sport scores, VAS, goniometric ROM (plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, eversion), and SEBT (anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral).


Subjects in all groups posttest demonstrated an increase in FAAM, FAAM Sport, ROM, and SEBT in all directions but not in VAS, which decreased. No other results were significant.


For subjects with CAI, dynamic postural control, ROM, pain and disability improved pretest to posttest regardless of group membership, with the largest effects found in most measures in the DBT/GISTM group.

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Philippa J.A. Nicolson, Vicky Duong, Esther Williamson, Sally Hopewell, and Sarah E. Lamb

sit to stand), and (c) Tinetti test. For self-reported physical function we prioritized (a) the Barthel Index and (b) any other self-reported measures of physical function. For health-related quality of life outcomes we prioritized (a) the EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire, (b

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Elizabeth Chmelo, Barbara Nicklas, Cralen Davis, Gary D. Miller, Claudine Legault, and Stephen Messier


To assess correlates of physical activity, and to examine the relationship between physical activity and physical functioning, in 160 older (66 ± 6 years old), overweight/obese (mean body mass index = 33.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2), sedentary (less than 30 mins of activity, 3 days a week) individuals with knee osteoarthritis.


Physical activity was measured with accelerometers and by self-report. Physical function was assessed by 6-min walk distance, knee strength, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Pain and perceived function were measured by questionnaires. Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to analyze the relationships.


The mean number of steps taken per day was 6209 and the average PAEE was 237 ± 124 kcal/day. Participants engaged in 131 ± 39 minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and 10.6 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MPA/VPA). Total steps/day, PAEE, and minutes of MPA/VPA were all negatively correlated with age. The 6-min walk distance and lower extremity function were better in those who had higher total steps/day, higher PAEE, higher minutes of MPA/VPA, and a higher PASE score.


This study demonstrates that a population who has higher levels of spontaneous activity have better overall physical function than those who engage in less activity.

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird, and Amanda Clare Benson

from the validated Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Questionnaire (SF-36; Brown, 2003 ; Stewart, Hays, & Ware, 1988 ) was used to establish self-reported physical function. The Ewart self-efficacy scale, developed in cardiac patients ( Ewart, Stewart, Gillilan, & Keleman, 1986 ; Ewart

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Ryan McCann, Kyle Kosik, Masafumi Terada, and Phillip Gribble

. All participants underwent evaluations in the following order: self-reported physical function, pain, edema, dorsiflexion ROM, ligamentous laxity, dynamic postural control. Patient Evaluation Self-reported physical function assessment At RTP, we assessed self-reported physical function of the involved

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Sara Birch, Torben Bæk Hansen, Maiken Stilling, and Inger Mechlenburg

mass index; CI = confidence interval; PCS = Pain Catastrophizing Scale. * p  < .05. Self-Reported Physical Function, Performance-Based Function, and DXA Preoperatively, the noncatastrophizers had statistically significantly better scores in the KOOS subscales: pain, symptoms, and activity of daily

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Bobby Neudorf, Crystal Hughes, Courtney Ellis, Richard Neudorf, Zach Weston, and Laura Middleton

targeted outcomes (B to PP) • Effect of the program on physical measures and physiological measures • Effect of the program on self-reported physical function, symptoms of arthritis, quality of life, and physical activity levels • Overall satisfaction with the program (scores >80% on the YMCA evaluation

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Ashley Morgan, Kenneth S. Noguchi, Ada Tang, Jennifer Heisz, Lehana Thabane, and Julie Richardson

.13] 1 min: −0.40 [−1.30, 0.50] 3 min: −0.29 [−1.18, 0.60] VT: −0.43 [−1.33, 0.47] Very low: Downgraded for very serious RoB, very serious imprecision Self-reported physical functioning  QOL: Physical functioning 110 (three studies; Borges-Silva et al., 2022 ; Hurst et al., 2019 ; Jiménez

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Ryan S. McCann, Kyle B. Kosik, Masafumi Terada, and Phillip A. Gribble

evaluated self-reported physical function of the involved limb with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activity of daily living (FAAM-ADL) and sport (FAAM-S) subscales. We measured involved ankle pain in a non-weight-bearing (NWB) position, in single-leg stance (SLS), and after walking four steps using a

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Richelle M. Williams, Rachel S. Johnson, Alison R. Snyder Valier, R. Curtis Bay, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

-related concussion. Findings from this study suggest that following a concussive injury, multiple domains of health, as demonstrated through the Pediatric-25 subscales, improved from day 3 postinjury and continued to improve through RTP. Domains of health were lowest acutely postinjury when self-reported physical