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Javier Horcajo, Borja Paredes, Guillermo Higuero, Pablo Briñol and Richard E. Petty

Athletes’ self-talk involves talking to themselves either out loud or internally during a sport task and occurs “as verbalizations or self-statements addressed to the self” ( Hardy, 2006 , p. 84). Van Raalte, Vincent, and Brewer ( 2016 , p. 141) have proposed a definition that emphasizes the

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Allen E. Cornelius, Maureen K. Copeskey and Britton W. Brewer

Research exploring spontaneously generated self-talk has involved recording performers’ self-talk categorized by researchers. The actor-observer bias, suggests that actors (performers) and observers (researchers) may perceive the same situation (e.g., self-talk) differently. The purpose of this study was to explore the actor-observer bias and validity of self-talk categorization. College students’ (n = 30) spontaneous self-talk was audio recorded during a dart throwing task. Participants then listened to and categorized their self-talk. Three independent researchers reviewed written transcripts and categorized the self-talk. Another three researchers who had not read the transcripts listened to audio recordings and categorized the same self-talk. Results confirmed actor-observer bias predictions. Spontaneous self-talk ratings made by participants were similar to but distinct from those made by researchers reading transcripts or listening to self-talk audio recordings. These results suggest that participant categorization of spontaneous self-talk may be a valid strategy to enhance understanding of self-talk used in competitive settings.

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Lorraine Wilson, Allen Cornelius and Britton W. Brewer

The effects of instructional and motivational self-talk have been examined in the literature on self-talk in sport ( Hatzigeorgiadis, Zourbanos, Galanis, & Theodorakis, 2011 ; Tod, Hardy, & Oliver, 2011 ). Research suggests that self-talk is particularly effective when it is matched to the type of

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin and Britton W. Brewer

Most self-talk and sport research has been conducted in noncompetitive or laboratory settings ( Hatzigeorgiadis, Zourbanos, Galanis, & Theodorakis, 2011 ; Tod, Hardy, & Oliver, 2011 ). Research related to highly skilled athletes’ self-talk during competition has focused on self-talk frequency (e

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James Hardy, Nikos Comoutos and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

The foundations of self-talk research are intertwined with the complex interactions between cognition, affect, and behavior, and reflect the origins of the field of sport psychology and its connections with cognitive psychology, personality theories, and social-cognitive approaches to understanding

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Yani L. Dickens, Judy Van Raalte and Russell T. Hurlburt

Although self-talk has been widely advocated as a performance enhancement tool, and the role of self-talk in enhancing sport performance has been well documented, there are still key concerns about the way self-talk is defined ( Hardy, 2006 ), elicited, accessed, and measured ( Brinthaupt, Benson

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Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó and Nikos Comoutos

“Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” This famous quote by Benjamin Franklin illustrates how important active involvement in learning is for learning. In this sense, self-directed attention-focusing strategies such as goal-directed self-talk may be critical in

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Evangelos Galanis, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Comoutos, Fedra Charachousi and Xavier Sanchez

Self-talk research in sport has flourished due to its direct applied value. It is noteworthy that even the first studies in the sport self-talk literature examined the effectiveness of self-talk strategies on performance (e.g., Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988 ; Ziegler, 1987

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Behrouz Abdoli, James Hardy, Javad F. Riyahi and Alireza Farsi

Self-talk can be viewed as statements, phrases, or cue words addressed to the self that can be said automatically or very strategically, either out loud or silently, phrased positively or negatively, having an instructional or motivational purpose, an element of interpretation, and incorporating

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Ruth Brennan Morrey, Allen E. Cornelius and Britton W. Brewer

Much of the research on self-talk in sport has focused on the effects of assigned self-talk (e.g., instructional self-talk, motivational self-talk) on the performance of laboratory tasks and/or tasks of short duration (Hatzigeorgiadis, Zourbanos, Galanis, & Theodorakis, 2011; Tod, Hardy, & Oliver, 2011). The purpose of this study was to explore more fully the self-talk of athletes involved in competition over an extended period of time. Marathon runners (N = 483) were surveyed. The majority (88%) of runners, those who indicated that they use self-talk during marathons, completed open-ended items describing their self-talk while competing. Runners reported using a rich variety of motivational self-talk as well as spiritual self-talk and mantras, types of self-talk less widely studied in the literature. Given the findings of this research, future studies exploring self-talk use during competition in sporting events of long duration seems warranted.