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Masafumi Terada, Megan Beard, Sara Carey, Kate Pfile, Brian Pietrosimone, Elizabeth Rullestad, Heather Whitaker and Phillip Gribble

control cohorts. Identifying measures that depict dysfunction in patients with CAI may guide future research focused on potential points of intervention to transition patients with CAI into LAS copers, reducing long-term disability and preserving joint health. The sensorimotor system encompasses the rich

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David Logerstedt

Posterior glenohumeral dislocations are rare, comprising only 4 percent of all shoulder dislocations. While early and accurate diagnosis of a posterior dislocation increases the likelihood of success with non-operative management, traditional rehabilitation may not adequately address the sensorimotor deficits that are evident following dislocation. Restoration of the sensorimotor system is critical to successfully return a throwing athlete safely to sports. The use of functional neuromuscular rehabilitation (FNR) attempts to address deficits in the compromised sensorimotor system. With a good understanding of the specific demands placed on the overhead athlete’s shoulder, knowledge of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints’ biome-chanics, respect for the athlete’s level of symptoms and pain, adherence to soft tissue healing, and application of a rehabilitation program that incorporates FNR, an athlete can successfully return to a high level of competition following an acute posterior glenohumeral dislocation.

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M.A. Urbin

Goal-directed movement is possible because the cortical regions regulating movement have continuous access to visual information. Extensive research from the various domains of motor control (i.e., neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and psychophysics) has documented the extent to which the unremitting availability of visual information enables the sensorimotor system to facilitate online control of goal-directed limb movement. However, the control mechanism guiding appreciably more complex movements characterized by ballistic, whole-body coordination is not well understood. In the overarm throw, for example, joint rotations must be optimally timed between body segments to exploit the passive flow of kinetic energy and, in turn, maximize projectile speed while maintaining accuracy. The purpose of this review is to draw from the various research domains in motor control and speculate on the nature of the sensorimotor control mechanism facilitating overarm throwing performance.

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Joerg Teichmann, Rachel Tan, Kim Hébert-Losier, Yeo Wee Kian, Shabana Jalal Din, Ananthi Subramaniam, Dietmar Schmidtbleicher and C. Martyn Beaven

frequency to the sensorimotor system (>350 ms). Given that empirical observations suggest that ruptures of ligaments in the ankle and knee joints occur in a time span of <200 ms, 7 the sensorimotor system may require specific training to protect against subsequent injury. Unexpected disturbances (such as a

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Jason Cline, Abbey Thomas Fenwick, Tricia Turner, Susan Arthur and Erik A. Wikstrom

elastic tape, has gained popularity and is purported to have numerous benefits, including the reeducation of the sensorimotor system. 24 Evidence to support this claim in CAI patients exists after prolonged use, 25 – 27 but the results immediately after application are mixed. 16 , 27 – 30 Despite these

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Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini, Fabio M. Botti, Daniele Busti, Roberto Panichi and Vito E. Pettorossi

athletes who have suffered acute or overuse shoulder injuries. 19 , 22 Shoulder sensorimotor control deficiency may be related to the alteration of any of the components of the sensorimotor system (proprioception, central integration, and neuromuscular control). 19 , 22 Specifically, Salles et al 20

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John Andrew Badagliacco and Andrew Karduna

fire synchronously. 8 In order to perform precise coordinated motions, such as pitching a baseball, accurate afferent feedback from the limb is essential. 9 , 10 The sensorimotor system integrates afferent information from the limbs to help form a model of limb motion, 11 which in turn, helps to

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Jupil Ko, Erik Wikstrom, Yumeng Li, Michelle Weber and Cathleen N. Brown

feedforward neuromuscular control functions are crucial to execute dynamic balance tasks, 26 , 28 , 29 but these domains are impaired in individuals with CAI. 30 , 31 These impairments are thought to constrain the sensorimotor system and lead to worse dynamic balance (and other tasks) in individuals with

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Zachary R. Weber, Divya Srinivasan and Julie N. Côté

, Dingwell, & Gates, 2014 ; Fuller et al., 2009 ; Gates & Dingwell, 2011 ; Qin, Lin, Faber, Buchholz, & Xu, 2014 ). Motor variability, defined as the intrinsic variability in actions controlled by the sensorimotor system ( Madeleine, 2010 ; Mathiassen, Möller, & Forsman, 2003 ), has evolved into an

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Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura and Minoru Hoshiyama

a specific function of MNS, the present results suggest that both neural networks for MNS and the sensorimotor system were facilitated by a combination of visual information on perspectives and motor tasks. Regarding inter- and intraregional coherence, the results should be interpreted with caution