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Todd A. Evans, Jennifer R. Kunkle, Krista M. Zinz, Jessica L. Walter and Craig R. Denegar


To assess the efficacy of lidocaine iontophoresis on myofascial trigger-point pain.


University athletic training facility.


Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures.


Twenty-three subjects with sensitive trigger points over the trapezius.


Placebo iontophoresis treatment without current or lidocaine, control treatment using distilled water and normal current dose, medicated treatment using 1% lidocaine and normal current dose.

Main Outcome Measure:

Trigger-point pressure threshold assessed with an algometer.


ANOVA revealed a significant difference among treatments (F 2,40 = 7.38, P < .01). Post hoc comparisons revealed a significant difference in pressure threshold between the lidocaine treatment and the control (P = .01) and placebo (P = .001) treatments. Effect sizes of .28 and .39, respectively, were found for these comparisons.


Although the data revealed significant differences between treatments, the small effect sizes and magnitude of the pressure-sensitivity deviation scores suggest that iontophoresis with 1% lidocaine is ineffective in treating trigger points.

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Zachary R. Weber, Divya Srinivasan and Julie N. Côté

( Haggard, Taylor-Clarke, & Kennett, 2003 ). However, the effects of muscular fatigue on this branch of the sensorimotor system have not been as well explored as those on the motor system. Quantitative sensory threshold testing of cutaneous sensitivity to touch is one tool by which the state of the sensory

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Carly C. Sacco, Erin M. Gaffney and Jesse C. Dean

amplitude just below the tactile sensory threshold 14 , 17 , 24 with generally positive results. Other such studies have reported optimal effects with amplitudes ranging from 33–100% of sensory threshold. 13 , 25 , 26 However, the present work seeks to enhance proprioceptive feedback related to changes in

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Tiffany Switlick, Thomas W. Kernozek and Stacey Meardon


A relationship between altered postural control and injury has been reported in sports. Sensorimotor function serves a fundamental role in postural control and is not often studied in runners. Persons who sustain running injury may have altered sensorimotor function contributing to risk of injury or reinjury.


To determine if differences in knee and ankle proprioception or plantar sensation exist between injured and noninjured runners.


Retrospective case-control study.


University campus.


Twenty runners with a history of lower-extremity overuse injury and 20 noninjured runners were examined. Injured runners were subcategorized into 2 groups based on site of injury: foot/ankle and knee/hip.

Main Outcome Measures:

Active absolute joint-repositioning error of the ankle at 20° inversion and 10° eversion and the knee at 15° and 40° flexion was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Vibratory threshold at the calcaneus, arch, and great toe was determined for each subject using a handheld electric sensory threshold instrument.


Runners in the injured-foot/ankle group had increased absolute error during ankle-eversion repositioning (6.55° ± 3.58°) compared with those in the noninjured (4.04° ± 1.78°, P = .01) and the hip/knee (3.63° ± 2.2°, P = .01) groups. Runners in the injured group, as a whole, had greater sensitivity in the arch of the plantar surface (2.94 ± 0.52 V) than noninjured runners (2.38 ± 0.53 V, P = .02).


Differences in ankle-eversion proprioception between runners with a history of ankle and foot injuries and noninjured runners were observed. Runners with a history of injury also displayed an increased vibratory threshold in the arch region compared with noninjured runners. Poor ankle-joint-position sense and increased plantar sensitivity suggest altered sensorimotor function after injury. These factors may influence underlying postural control and contribute to altered loading responses commonly observed in injured runners.

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Xingda Qu, Jianxin Jiang and Xinyao Hu

determine the participants’ sensory threshold. In this test, subsensory noise generators were first attached to the knee. The experimenters set the initial input voltage at 0.1 V (ie, the minimum input voltage of the noise generators) and instructed the participants to walk back and forth along a walkway

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

metal-ring electrodes to the left index and little fingers (model DS7A; Digitimer Ltd, Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom). Stimulus intensity was set at twice the individual sensory threshold and, of 1000 delivered stimuli, 10% were deviants, delivered in a random order; more details are described in

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Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira and Renato Moraes

.E. ( 2010 ). Age differences in orofacial sensory thresholds . Journal of Dental Research, 89 ( 10 ), 1102 – 1105 . PubMed doi:10.1177/0022034510375287 10.1177/0022034510375287 Heroux , M.E. , Dakin , C.J. , Luu , B.L. , Inglis , J.T. , & Blouin , J.S. ( 2014 ). Absence of lateral

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Karim Korchi, Frédéric Noé, Noëlle Bru and Thierry Paillard

( 11 ), 1919 – 1926 . PubMed ID: 24219193 doi:10.1111/jgs.12531 10.1111/jgs.12531 Dettmer , M. , Pourmoghaddam , A. , Lee , B.C. , & Layne , C.S. ( 2016 ). Associations between tactile sensory threshold and postural performance and effects of healthy aging and subthreshold vibrotactile