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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

cells. 4 – 6 In humans, NGF and BDNF have been studied by measuring their levels in the blood (serum or plasma). Exercise increases the permeability of the blood–brain barrier, 7 which suggests that the levels of NGF and BDNF in the brain and blood may be interrelated. Acute bouts of exercise increase

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima and Mitsuru Higuchi

between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and glucose profiles also exist in male collegiate football athletes. In addition, the body fat percent and visceral fat area (VFA) have been convincingly shown to be stronger predictors of insulin resistance and T2DM in Asians compared with body mass index (BMI; Yoon

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Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou and Bareket Falk

reduce the burden of potential issues faced with obtaining repeated blood samples in a pediatric population. There have been various studies that examined youth’s hormonal response to exercise ( 11 ), but these studies used either serum or saliva, not both. The agreement in response between these 2

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Darryn S. Willoughby, Kaitlan N. Beretich, Marcus Chen and LesLee K. Funderburk

, anthropometrics, 3-day food records, and strength testing were performed at the baseline, pretesting (∼7 days prior to commencing RT), and after 10 weeks of RT (∼3 days following the last RT session) to determine changes in lean mass, muscle strength, and serum estradiol and CAF levels. Participants Forty

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello

studies have associated serum IGF-1 levels with the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death. 3 Thus, subjects with reduced IGF-1 concentration or change in function of this polypeptide (ie, GH axis abnormalities, diabetes, obesity, older people) can present a lack in some of these functions. 3

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Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe

), whereas other inflammatory markers such as IL-2, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been less studied ( 32 , 36 ). PA reduces body weight and FM, and thereby also the concentration of serum CRP and IL-6 ( 20 , 29 ). Also CRP and IL-6 were inversely correlated

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Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

upregulates CFTR expression ( Khadijah Ramli et al., 2018 ). It is unknown whether the serum concentrations of cortisol and testosterone associate with sweat Na + loss and concentration during exercise in humans. In soccer and, likewise, in other individual and team sports, players lose considerable

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Michael J. Ashenden, David T. Martin, Geoffrey P. Dobson, Colin Mackintosh and Allan G. Hahn

The aim of this study was to establish whether extremely low serum ferritin values in female athletes were associated with indications of iron deficiency anemia and whether serum ferritin values were influenced by the type of training or participants' body size. Hematological data collected during 6 years at the Australian Institute of Sport were reviewed to quantify changes in serum ferritin concentration associated with training and to establish whether decrements in serum ferritin were associated with any change in hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Mean serum ferritin concentrations of 7.5 μg ⋅ L−1 were not associated with any indication of iron-deficiency anemia. Serum ferritin declined by approximately 25% with the onset of rigorous daily training (p <.01) whether training was predominantly weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing. Rowers had significantly higher ferritin concentrations than basketball players of similar stature (p = .02). We conclude that considerable background information such as the stage of training, specific sport, and previous blood results should be sought when interpreting serum ferritin concentrations in female athletes.

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Donal Murray, Kevin C. Miller and Jeffrey E. Edwards

Clinical Scenario:

Although exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are common in ultradistance runners and athletes in general, their etiology remains unclear. EAMC are painful, sudden, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle occurring during or after exercise and are recognized by visible bulging or knotting of the whole, or part of, a muscle. Many clinicians believe EAMC occur after an imbalance in electrolyte concentrations, specifically serum sodium concentration ([Na+]s) and serum potassium concentration ([K+]s). Studies that have established a link between EAMC occurrence and serum electrolyte concentrations after an athletic event are unhelpful.

Focused Clinical Question:

Are [Na+]s and [K+]s different in athletes who experience EAMC than noncrampers?

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

supplementation on serum T, calculated free T [cFT], and other biomarkers of the HPG-axis (i.e., LH, sex-hormone binding goblin [SHBG]) in male climbers. Rock climbing can activate the HPG-axis ( Sherk et al., 2011 ), and thus it may present one pathway for training adaptation in this sport. A standard protocol