Six physical education specialists—two elementary, two junior high, and two high school (three males and three females)—were studied in an attempt to discern possible sex-role stereotyping in their classes. Data were triangulated from teacher observations, a sex-role inventory, and junior and senior high school student perceptions of teacher treatment in physical education classes. Results revealed that the female teachers used more managerial cues in their classes and called boys by name more frequently than did male teachers. Two male teachers were classified as being gender typed, but results from students of both sexes revealed no perceived differential treatment in class. From this teacher sample, the results suggest that perhaps the gymnasium is not quite the bastion of gender typing as is often assumed. Due to the small sample size, results were not generalized to a larger population and thus additional research is recommended.
Katherine A. Wark and Arno F. Wittig
Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike and Stephanie Mazerolle
Women in athletic training face barriers when working with male sports teams; the reasons are multifactorial, including traditional sex stereotyping and the social networking of male leaders (i.e., the “old boys club”). The purpose of our qualitative research study was to explore the experiences of women athletic trainers providing medical care to a male athletic team within the collegiate setting. Fifteen female NCAA Division I collegiate athletic trainers working with male sports teams completed telephone interviews. The interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was utilized. Trustworthiness was ensured through peer review, multiple researcher triangulation, and saturation. Participants experienced discriminatory behavior, sexism, and gender bias within the workplace. Though their relationships with student-athletes and coaches were often harmonious, participants experienced sexism and discrimination from the time they were students through their professional careers.
Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield
logically follow that 2D4D would be negatively associated with sex role orientation. Csatho et al. ( 2003 ) investigated this association with 46 female students and found that those with lower, more male typical digit ratios scored higher on the masculinity subscale but lower on the femininity scale of the
Merrill J. Melnick, Beth E. Vanfossen and Donald F. Sabo
This study examined the impact of athletic participation on the academic, social, and social–psychological development of high school girls. A panel design and multistage sampling were used to assess the effect of athletic participation on perceived popularity, sex-role attitudes, psychological well-being, sociability, delinquency, academic achievement, educational aspiration, and extracurricular involvement. Data were obtained from transcript records and survey questionnaires administered during the subjects’ sophomore (1980) and senior (1982) years. Multiple regression analysis revealed that athletic participation was strongly related to extracurricular involvement, modestly related to perceived popularity, but only slightly related to delinquency and educational aspiration. Athletic participation was not related to psychological well-being or sex-role attitudes.
Joy B. Reeves
A survey of male players of the National Survival Game reveals that most participants are young, white, single, well educated, and consider themselves to be active sportsmen. A factor analysis suggests that there are three distinct reasons for participation: (a) general physical, intellectual, and social benefits, (b) aggression, and (c) achievement and control. Surprisingly, those players in the sample who had traditional sex-role attitudes participated less frequently than those with less traditional views.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell
Gender portrayals in sport-related advertising generally reinforce institutionalized sexism and culturally defined sex-role behaviors. Gender-defining messages in advertising photographs may have an especially profound impact on children because children understand meanings in pictures before they understand meanings in text. The purpose of this study was to analyze gender portrayals contained in advertisements appearing in Sports Illustrated for Kids (SIK) over a 6-year period. Advertisements were coded to determine (a) the total number of advertisements featuring females and males, (b) genders represented as prominent or supporting in advertising portrayals, and (c) gender portrayals in advertisement activities and product types. Content analysis revealed that girls and women were drastically underrepresented as models in SIK advertising and that distinct gender roles were sustained by depicting males in nearly all types of activities and products. Conventional stereotypical relationships between sport and gender were represented in the majority of SIK advertisements.
Robert Weinberg, Margie Reveles and Allen Jackson
This investigation was done to gather some exploratory data concerning the attitudes and feelings of male and female college, high school, and junior high school varsity basketball players toward having a female coach versus a male coach. Subjects (N = 85) indicated their attitudes for playing for a hypothetical male or female coach (randomly assigned to condition) in a 2 x 2 (sex of athlete x sex of coach) between-subjects design. They were instructed to complete a questionnaire consisting of 11 items that tapped their attitudes and feelings toward a new coach. Identical background information was provided to subjects concerning the qualifications of the coach, the only difference being that for one group of subjects the coach was said to be female whereas for the other group of subjects the coach was said to be a male. Results were analyzed by a MANOVA and indicated significant interactions on seven questions, with simple main effects consistently indicating that males displayed more negative attitudes toward female coaches than did females while males and females did not differ in their view of male coaches. Results are discussed in terms of sex-role socialization patterns for males and females.
Scott B. Martin, Peggy A. Richardson, Karen H. Weiller and Allen W. Jackson
During the past decade females have had more opportunities to participate in sports at various levels than ever before. These opportunities and the recognition received due to their success may have changed peoples’ views regarding same-sex role models, perceived parental encouragement, and expectations of success. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore role models, perceived encouragement to participate in youth sport from parents, and sport expectations of adolescent athletes and their parents living in the United States of America. A questionnaire was administered to 426 adolescent athletes who competed in youth sport leagues and to one parent within each family unit (n=426). Chi square analysis indicated significant relationships between athletes’ gender and the gender of their role model and between parents’ gender and the gender of their role model (p = .0001). DM MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate difference for adolescent athletes and their parents on the questions concerning expectations for future athletic success. Post hoc analyses indicated that the athletes were more likely than their parents to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, or professional levels. In addition, boys were more likely than girls to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, and professional levels.