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Fabien D. Legrand, William M. Bertucci and Joanne Hudson

A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition × age × sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.

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Tracie A. Barnett, Lise Gauvin, Cora L. Craig and Peter T. Katzmarzyk


We investigated the population trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adults age 18 to 60 y (n = 881), who were recruited in 1981 for the Canada Fitness Survey and followed-up through the Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (1988) and the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (2002/04).


Data on involvement in LTPA were collected by questionnaire and used to estimate average daily energy expenditure (EE) (kcal · kg-1 · d-1) during leisure time. Growth trajectory modeling was used to describe the overall population trajectory of LTPA and the extent to which average trajectories varied between sub-groups defined by age, sex, and education.


The population trajectory of LTPA over time was modified by baseline age, but not by sex or by level of education. Disparities in LTPA related to sex and education persisted over two decades.


This longitudinal investigation improves our understanding of the processes underlying patterns of LTPA in adults.

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert and Ricardo J. Fernandes

Vrielink, & Toussaint, 1993 ), pointing out that a single movement goal can be reached in different ways ( Starkes & Allard, 1993 ). Several factors have been associated with movement variability, particularly skill level ( Hong & Newell, 2006 ), sex ( Svendsen & Madeleine, 2010 ), age ( MacDonald, Nyberg

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Bruno de Souza Moreira, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Luciana de Souza Braga, Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Juliana Lustosa Torres, Maria Fernanda Furtado Lima-Costa and Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

disease, colon and breast cancer, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality ( Cunningham, Sullivan, Caserotti, & Tully, 2020 ). Recent estimates reveal that more than a quarter of the world’s adults (27.5%) are insufficiently active, with a difference of ≥8% points between sexes (23.4% in men vs. 31

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Diego G.D. Christofaro, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Kyle R. Lynch, William R. Tebar, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Fernanda G. Tebar, Gregore I. Mielke and Xuemei Sui

parent and child SB and PA level is needed, and investigation about whether associations differ by parent and child sex, or domain of PA is also needed. Also, these relationships may be different in low- and middle-income countries, 15 which makes the search for these relationships important. Thus, this

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Bryan R. Picco, Meghan E. Vidt and Clark R. Dickerson

data for comparison, although a benchmark is unavailable 5 for sex-specific scapular kinematics. Characteristics of male and female anatomy, including anthropometry and segment masses, 6 quantity of skeletal muscle mass, 7 and muscle activation patterns, 8 may contribute to different scapular

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Anthony Birat, David Sebillaud, Pierre Bourdier, Eric Doré, Pascale Duché, Anthony J. Blazevich, Dimitrios Patikas and Sébastien Ratel

DJ, the stretch load is strongly influenced by the drop height of the body’s center of mass prior to landing in the jump, which has been suggested to be set in the region of 20 to 70 cm in adults ( 3 ). However, optimal drop height has not yet been determined according to age, maturity status, sex

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

with similar V ˙ O 2 max . 3 Furthermore, distance-running events appear to be dominated by highly economical athletes. 4 However, despite its importance for distance-running performance, 1 , 2 the influence of sex and running speed on running economy remains unclear and may be confounded by

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

single best indicator of youth aerobic fitness, but its interpretation in relation to sex, age, body mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and maturity status is controversial ( 4 ). The vast majority of published data are cross-sectional and, on balance, show that boys’ absolute peak V ˙ O 2 (ie, in L·min −1

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John Hood-Williams

Sociologists, like the International Olympic Committee (IOC), have believed that the guarantor of sexual division lies in the natural differences of the human body. The key sociological problematic that has dominated discussion in this area for over 20 years turns on a distinction between “sex,” which is conceived of as natural, and “gender,” which is conceived of as constructed. But it is argued in this article that sex is no less a discursive construct than gender. Modern discussions of sex derive from a two-sex model of the body that is no more (and no less) “true” than the preceding monomorphic model. The article discusses the claims of the sex/gender problematic, presents arguments that demonstrate the existence of a one-sex model, and examines recent claims of geneticists. It is argued that such claims are tautological and that there never will be a true sign of a true sex, whatever the hopes of the IOC.