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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and E. Michael Loovis

( Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005 ). However, the BOT-2 authors did not note sex-specific differences in their norm samples for BOT-2 subtests involving static and dynamic BAL, BLC, and ULC ( Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005 ). That is, male- and female-scaled scores for BAL, BLC, and ULC converted to similar total

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester, and Jonathan P. Folland

speed and sex on running economy in a large sample of runners. We hypothesized that the energy cost of running would increase as a function of running speed, there would be no sex-specific difference in the energy cost of running at the same absolute or relative speeds (% speed at lactate turn point

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent, and Katherine A. Boyer

-related decline in knee extensor strength and power compared with males. 4 , 14 , 18 , 19 This sex-specific difference in age-related knee extensor decline could be problematic as these muscles are important for stance phase support and propulsion during locomotion. 20 In addition to a sex-specific difference

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Martin Alfuth, Pia Joana Franke, Jonas Klemp, and Axel Johannes Knicker

players. Handball-specific reference values of functional performance are lacking. 26 In consideration of sex, these values are necessary to evaluate knee functions 27 because for clinicians and therapists sex-specific differences may play an important role in recovery of functional performance

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Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Maria I. Maraki, Eleni Karfopoulou, Yannis Koutras, Stavrie Chrysostomou, Costas A. Anastasiou, Stavros A. Kavouras, and Mary Yannakoulia

Background: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. Methods: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18–65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. Results: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (P adjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (P adjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (P adjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. Conclusions: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.

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Sebastian Ludyga, Thomas Gronwald, and Kuno Hottenrott

Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists’ cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men’s brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

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Bryan R. Picco, Meghan E. Vidt, and Clark R. Dickerson

Scapular kinematics are important indicators of dyskinesis, often suggesting underlying shoulder pathology, but the influence of sex is unknown. This study’s objective was to examine scapular kinematics in healthy males and females. Positions of surface-mounted reflective markers were tracked during arm elevation movements in 0°/30°/40°/60°/90°/120° planes. Scapulothoracic rotations (protraction/retraction, medial/lateral rotation, posterior/anterior tilt) were calculated. ANOVA analysis evaluated main and interaction effects of sex, plane, phase, and elevation angle. Males and females had similar protraction/retraction and medial/lateral rotation kinematics; mean sex-related peak angle differences were 2.5°, 1.8° (raise [concentric]), respectively, and 2.9°, 2.7° (lower [eccentric]), respectively. Largest sex differences for mean peak angle occurred for posterior/anterior tilt at higher elevation angles (raise, 8.4°; lower, 8.5°). Elevation, plane, and phase were main effects for all scapular rotations (P < .001). Sex was not a main effect for any rotations. Sex × elevation interactions influenced protraction/retraction (P < .001) and posterior/anterior tilt (P < .001). Sex × plane (P ≤ .01) and sex × phase (P ≤ .002) interactions influenced all rotations. Lower posterior tilt for females compared to males at higher elevation angles could relate to higher female shoulder pathology incidence. Sex, plane, and phase are necessary components of uninjured scapular kinematics. Sex-specific differences provide insight into potential shoulder pathology etiology. These data provide a benchmark to assess pathological populations.

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Manuel Mateo-March, Mikel Zabala, Xabier Muriel, Alejandro Lucia, David Barranco-Gil, and Jesús G. Pallarés

with no clear sex-specific differences. It must be noted, nonetheless, that as opposed to female cyclists, male riders also showed a slight impairment in individual performance at moderately cold ambient temperatures (5–10°C). On the other hand, as opposed to male riders, female cyclists showed a

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Dana M. Ghareeb, Owen D. Harris, and Jennifer M. Jakobi

between sexes, although challenging, would be ideal. There is a paramount need to further our understanding of the physiological factors that are contributing to, or not, the positive influence of strength training in older adults. Although more research is needed on older females and understanding sex-specific

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Phillip J. Hill, Melitta A. McNarry, Leanne Lester, Lawrence Foweather, Lynne M. Boddy, Stuart J. Fairclough, and Kelly A. Mackintosh

 al., 2020 ; Hardy et al., 2013 ). Sex-specific differences also exist, with boys consistently reported as being more proficient in object control skills, though evidence relating to locomotor skills remains equivocal ( Barnett et al., 2016 ). Such sex-specific differences in fundamental movement skill