The impact of race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation on human cognition, affect, and behavior has been well documented in the psychology, sociology, and counseling literature. Sport and exercise psychology, however, has minimized the importance of these variables (Duda & Allison, 1990). The purpose of the current study was to determine how race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation have been addressed in the recent sport and exercise psychology literature. Duda and Allison’s previous research was replicated and extended by analyzing the content of 982 manuscripts published in JSEP, JASP, and TSP between 1987 and 2000. Overall, 19.86% of manuscripts included references to race/ethnicity and 1.22% included references to sexual orientation. Detailed results demonstrate that, despite an increase in the number of papers that include references to race and ethnicity, there has been no systematic attempt to include the experience of marginalized groups in the literature. Researchers and practitioners are encouraged to incorporate appropriate questions, reporting, and sensitivity with regard to race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation into their work.
Nilam Ram, Joanna Starek and Jay Johnson
Nefertiti A. Walker and E. Nicole Melton
To date, sport research on sexuality has primarily focused on White lesbian, bisexual, and gay (LBG) persons or heterosexual racial minorities; few studies have provided meaningful insight into how sexual prejudice affects racial minorities. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to explore the intersection of race, sexual orientation, and gender in the context of collegiate sport and examine the influence of multiple marginalized identities on organizational outcomes. Grounded in intersectionality literature and feminist standpoint theory, semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 current and former intercollegiate sport employees. Results revealed four higher order themes: (a) racially influenced experiences, (b) managing lesbian-ness, (c) organizational climate, and (d) organizational outcomes. This research expands the theoretical knowledge of intersectionality, introduces a turnover intention tipping point phenomenon, and provides mangers with firsthand feedback on current policy and norms that may decrease satisfaction.
George B. Cunningham, Melanie L. Sartore and Brian P. McCullough
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of job applicant sexual orientation on subsequent evaluations and hiring recommendations. Data were gathered from 106 students (48 men, 57 women) who participated in a 2 (applicant sexual orientation: heterosexual, sexual minority) × 2 (rater gender: female, male) × 2 (applicant gender: female, male) experiment related to the hiring of a personal trainer for a fitness organization. Analysis of variance indicated that sexual minority job applicants received poorer evaluations than did heterosexuals. These effects were moderated by the rater gender, as men provided harsher ratings of sexual minorities than did women. Finally, applicant ratings were reliably related to hiring recommendations. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature, limitations, and future directions.
George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite
(whether team, work group, or sport organization) along the diversity dimensions of sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression. Inclusion, on the other hand, represents “the degree to which employees are free to express their individual self and have a sense of workplace connectedness and
expression (i.e., physical appearance, clothes, and behaviors expressing one’s gender identity), sexual orientation (i.e., sexual and/or emotional attraction to another person) or reproductive development differs from that of both the heterosexual majority and the majority of people who experience congruence
Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan
It is well documented that individuals with minority sexual orientations and minority gender identities [ie, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, etc (LGBTQ+)] experience discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization on a variety of institutional and personal levels. 1 , 2 The
George Cunningham and E. Nicole Melton
The purpose of this study was to examine parents’ supportive attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) coaches, as well as the sources of that support. The authors drew from the model of dual attitudes and a multilevel framework developed for the study to guide the analyses. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents who lived in the southwest United States. Analysis of the data revealed three different types of support: indifference, qualified support, and unequivocal support. Further analyses provided evidence of multilevel factors affecting the support, including those at the macro-level (religion), the meso-level (parental influences and contact with sexual minorities), and the micro-level (affective and cognitive influences) of analysis. Theoretical implications and contributions of the study are discussed.
Cheryl A. MacDonald
.6 Intolerance/Disagree 18 18.9 19.8 82.4 Sexual Orientation 7 7.4 7.7 90.1 Other 9 9.5 9.9 100.0 Total 91 95.8 100.0 Missing 99 4 4.2 Total 95 100.0 Note . A value of 99 represents a question left blank or unanswered. What can be taken from this is that a majority or respondents (79%) defined
Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock and Mary E. Rudisill
work ( 2nd ed. ). Baltimore, MD : John Hopkins University Press . Sue , D. ( 2010a ). Microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender, and sexual orientation . Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons . Sue , D. (Ed.). ( 2010b ). Microaggressions and marginality: Manifestation, dynamics, and impact
Mallory Mann and Vikki Krane
). It is hegemonic in that the privileging of heterosexuality is so routine that it seems normal and persists uncontested. The heterosexual matrix depicts the hegemonic supposition that biological sex, gender identity, and sexual orientation align in a predictable manner to create the socially