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Lara Mitchinson, Amity Campbell, Damian Oldmeadow, Will Gibson and Diana Hopper

Volleyball players are at high risk of overuse shoulder injuries, with spike biomechanics a perceived risk factor. This study compared spike kinematics between elite male volleyball players with and without a history of shoulder injuries. Height, mass, maximum jump height, passive shoulder rotation range of motion (ROM), and active trunk ROM were collected on elite players with (13) and without (11) shoulder injury history and were compared using independent samples t tests (P < .05). The average of spike kinematics at impact and range 0.1 s before and after impact during down-the-line and cross-court spike types were compared using linear mixed models in SPSS (P < .01). No differences were detected between the injured and uninjured groups. Thoracic rotation and shoulder abduction at impact and range of shoulder rotation velocity differed between spike types. The ability to tolerate the differing demands of the spike types could be used as return-to-play criteria for injured athletes.

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Rodney Y. L. Wong, Patrick S. H. Yung and H. T. Leong

the humerus against the glenoid. 26 Thus, strength imbalance of the shoulder rotators may lead to functional impingement and therefore predispose the risk factor for shoulder overuse injuries. 5 , 22 , 26 , 27 Apart from considering the strength of rotator cuff, endurance of shoulder rotators might

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Damla Gulpinar, Sibel Tekeli Ozer and Sevgi Sevi Yesilyaprak

shoulder capsule and musculature as a result of repetitive overhead motion. 6 Greater GIR limitation and PST were reported in overhead athletes with shoulder overuse injuries compared with asymptomatic athletes. 10 In addition, postural abnormalities might play a role in the development of overuse