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Alyssa Dittmer, David Tomchuk, and David R. Fontenot

. According to the Kinesio tape manual, 17 the limb rotational tape application corrects a rounded shoulder posture (RSP), defined as protraction, anterior tilting, and internal rotation of the scapula. 18 These scapular changes lead to an anterior translation of the acromion anterior to the line of gravity

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Mark Kluemper, Tim Uhl, and Heath Hazelrigg

Context:

Imbalanced shoulder muscles might cause poor posture in swimmers, which has been implicated as potential cause of injury.

Objective:

To determine whether a training program can reduce forward shoulder posture.

Design:

Prospective pseudorandomized.

Setting:

College swimming pool.

Participants:

39 competitive swimmers (age 16 ± 2 years) divided into an exercise group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 15).

Intervention:

The experimental group performed a partner-stretching program on the anterior shoulder muscles and a strengthening regimen focusing on the posterior shoulder muscles for 6 weeks. The control group participated in normal swim-training activities.

Main Outcome Measures:

Shoulder posture was measured as the distance from the anterior acromion to a wall using a double-square method.

Results:

The experimental group significantly reduced the distance of the acromion from the wall in a resting posture (–9.6 ± 7.3 mm) as compared with the control group (–2.0 ± 6.9 mm).

Conclusions:

A training routine might reduce the forward shoulder posture present in most competitive swimmers.

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Chang-Hee Ko, Heon-Seock Cynn, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Lim Yoon, and Sil-Ah Choi

Context:

Scapular bracing can correct scapular kinematics and restore normal scapular-muscle activity. However, there is little evidence to support the beneficial effects of a figure-8 strap, a type of scapular bracing, on muscle length, scapular alignment, and muscle activity during arm-lifting exercise.

Objective:

To investigate the immediate effect of a figure-8 strap on pectoralis minor length, scapular alignment, and scapular upward-rotator-muscle activity.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

Fifteen male participants (age 22.1 ± 1.9 y, weight 68.2 ± 5.7 kg, height 176.2 ± 3.3 cm) with forward shoulder posture (FSP) were examined for pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment with and without the application of a figure-8 strap.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pectoralis minor length was measured using the Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI), scapular alignment was measured with FSP, and upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscle activity were measured using surface electromyography while participants performed an arm-lifting exercise. Data collected with and without applying a figure-8 strap were compared using a paired t-test.

Results:

Applying a figure-8 strap significantly decreased the PMI (P = .005) and scapular anterior tilting (P = .000). There were no differences in the muscle activity of the upper trapezius (P = .784), lower trapezius (P = .241), and serratus anterior muscles (P = .639).

Conclusions:

A figure-8 strap resulted in positive changes in pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment. The results support its use as a treatment aid in managing pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment during arm-lifting exercises.

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Damla Gulpinar, Sibel Tekeli Ozer, and Sevgi Sevi Yesilyaprak

shoulder injuries. In subjects with preexisting forward head posture (FHP) and rounded shoulder posture (RSP), altered scapular kinematics and muscle activities, which could result in tissue overuse and injury, have been reported during overhead tasks. 11 An increased incidence of pain in the shoulder

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Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Marc Julia, Sophie Gleizes Cervera, William Vanbiervliet, Paul Calmels, and Vincent Gremeaux

Context:

Isokinetic assessment of shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator (ER) strength is commonly used with many different postures (sitting, standing, or supine) and shoulder positions (frontal or scapular plane with 45° or 90° of abduction).

Objective:

To conduct a systematic review to determine the influence of position on the intersession reliability of the assessment of IR and ER isokinetic strength, to identify the most reliable position, and to determine which isokinetic variable appears to be most stable in intersession reliability.

Evidence Acquisition:

A systematic literature search through MEDLINE and Pascal Biomed databases was performed in October 2009. Criteria for inclusion were that studies be written in English or French, describe the isokinetic evaluation methods, and describe statistical analysis.

Evidence Synthesis:

Sixteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Variable reliability of ER and IR peak torque (PT) were generally reported for all assessment positions; intraclass correlation coefficients were .44–.98 in the seated position with 45° of shoulder abduction, .09–.77 in the seated position with 90° of shoulder abduction, .86–.99 (coefficient of variation: 7.5–29.8%) in the supine position with 90° of shoulder abduction, .82–.84 in the supine position with 45° of shoulder abduction, and .75–.94 in standing. The ER:IR ratio reliability was low for all positions.

Conclusions:

The seated position with 45° of shoulder abduction in the scapular plane seemed the most reliable for IR and ER strength assessment. The standing position or a shoulder posture with 90° of shoulder abduction or in the frontal plane must be used with caution given the low reliability for peak torque. Good reliability of ER and IR PT was generally reported, but ER:IR ratio reliability was low.

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.1.33 Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in College Water-Polo Players Aaron Witwer * Eric Sauers * 2 2006 15 1 45 57 10.1123/jsr.15.1.45 Effect of Stretching and Strengthening Shoulder Muscles on Forward Shoulder Posture in Competitive Swimmers Mark Kluemper * Tim Uhl * Heath Hazelrigg * 2 2006 15

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.2015-0001 Figure-8 Strap Application: Immediate Alteration of Pectoralis Minor Length and Scapular Alignment During Arm-Lifting Exercise in Participants With Forward Shoulder Posture Chang-Hee Ko * Heon-Seock Cynn * Ji-Hyun Lee * Tae-Lim Yoon * Sil-Ah Choi * 8 2016 25 3 273 279 10.1123/jsr

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Jereme Wilroy and Elizabeth Hibberd

in glenohumeral rotational ROM due to improvements in posture. 30 In the current study, we did not evaluate posture due to limitations with assessment of posture in our population of interest; however, improvements in rounded shoulder posture may have also resulted due to the intervention program

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres, and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

muscles on forward shoulder posture in competitive swimmers . J Sport Rehabil . 2006 ; 15 ( 1 ): 58 – 70 . doi:10.1123/jsr.15.1.58 10.1123/jsr.15.1.58 20. Kohrt WM , Bloomfield SA , Little KD , Nelson ME , Yingling VR ; American College of Sports Medicine . American College of Sports

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul, and Dustin L. Crouch

elevated shoulder posture due to cable wrapping (Figure  3B ). Figure 2 —Steady-state muscle activations required to hold the shoulder, both with and without the exoskeleton, at a static posture of 90° SE with the elbow extended. DELT1 indicates anterior deltoid; DELT2, middle deltoid; DELT3, posterior