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Max C. Stuelcken, René E.D. Ferdinands, Karen A. Ginn and Peter J. Sinclair

This preliminary study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the peak shoulder distraction force during the bowling action of female cricket fast bowlers. An eight camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 120 Hz recorded the fast bowling actions of 18 Australian female fast bowlers. A three segment inverse solution model of the bowling arm was used to calculate the shoulder distraction force. A large peak shoulder distraction force was recorded during the early stages of the follow-through of the bowling action. When normalized for body weight, the distraction force was within the range of values reported for baseball and softball pitchers, who are considered to be at high risk of shoulder injury. Therefore, the relative importance of the peak shoulder distraction force in the fast bowling action for the development of shoulder pain in female cricket fast bowlers warrants further investigation.

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Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Marc Julia, Sophie Gleizes Cervera, William Vanbiervliet, Paul Calmels and Vincent Gremeaux


Isokinetic assessment of shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator (ER) strength is commonly used with many different postures (sitting, standing, or supine) and shoulder positions (frontal or scapular plane with 45° or 90° of abduction).


To conduct a systematic review to determine the influence of position on the intersession reliability of the assessment of IR and ER isokinetic strength, to identify the most reliable position, and to determine which isokinetic variable appears to be most stable in intersession reliability.

Evidence Acquisition:

A systematic literature search through MEDLINE and Pascal Biomed databases was performed in October 2009. Criteria for inclusion were that studies be written in English or French, describe the isokinetic evaluation methods, and describe statistical analysis.

Evidence Synthesis:

Sixteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Variable reliability of ER and IR peak torque (PT) were generally reported for all assessment positions; intraclass correlation coefficients were .44–.98 in the seated position with 45° of shoulder abduction, .09–.77 in the seated position with 90° of shoulder abduction, .86–.99 (coefficient of variation: 7.5–29.8%) in the supine position with 90° of shoulder abduction, .82–.84 in the supine position with 45° of shoulder abduction, and .75–.94 in standing. The ER:IR ratio reliability was low for all positions.


The seated position with 45° of shoulder abduction in the scapular plane seemed the most reliable for IR and ER strength assessment. The standing position or a shoulder posture with 90° of shoulder abduction or in the frontal plane must be used with caution given the low reliability for peak torque. Good reliability of ER and IR PT was generally reported, but ER:IR ratio reliability was low.

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Hio Teng Leong and Siu Ngor Fu

Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is considered to be the principal cause of shoulder pain in orthopedics and sports medicine, 1 , 2 particularly in athletes with repetitive overhead activities. 3 It is an umbrella term that includes a spectrum of pathological changes ranging from tendinopathy to

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Elshan Najafov, Şeyda Özal, Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan, Coşkun Ulucaköy, Ulunay Kanatlı, Baybars Ataoğlu and Selda Başar

The role of biceps long head (LHB) as a pain generator has been well documented in the literature. 1 , 2 Shoulder arthroscopy leads to better definitions of LHB intra-articular part and variations. 3 Major biceps long head pathologies are instability, primary or secondary biceps tendinitis

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Bryan R. Picco, Meghan E. Vidt and Clark R. Dickerson

Shoulder pain in the general population has a lifetime prevalence of 66.7% 1 and scapular movement is an important determinant of shoulder injury. 2 The role of scapular dyskinesis as a cause or symptom of shoulder dysfunction is unknown. 3 , 4 Identifying underlying pathology requires normative

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Jin Hyuck Lee, Ji Soon Park and Woong Kyo Jeong

Key Points ▸ Scapular dyskinesis can be caused by isolated hypertrophy of the serratus anterior, not only the weakness of the serratus anterior and trapezius. ▸ Bilateral shoulder computed tomography seems to be needed in patients with abnormal scapular movement and periscapular muscle spasm to

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Jereme Wilroy and Elizabeth Hibberd

The shoulder girdle is a complex system that has become a specialty in clinical sports medicine. 1 Athletes who play overhead sports have been described as having an increased risk for developing shoulder problems, such as pain and strength loss. 1 – 8 Shoulder impingement and rotator cuff tears

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Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck

literature documenting the accuracy of IMU systems for upper extremity kinematics, the purpose of this study was to validate a commercially available IMU system against a standard lab-based motion capture system for the measurement of shoulder elevation, elbow flexion, trunk flexion/extension, and neck

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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

Up to 67% of individuals will experience some form of shoulder injury in their lifetime. 1 External rotation (ER) is one of the most commonly prescribed shoulder strengthening exercises for injury rehabilitation and prevention. 2 , 3 Although primarily intended to target the infraspinatus, the

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Erin Frick and Marc P. Hilgers

A 14-year-old right-handed male baseball pitcher comes to you complaining of right shoulder pain for several weeks. He recalls no injury to his shoulder but instead complains of slowly worsening pain with throwing. Between travel and now high school baseball, which just recently resumed, he often finds himself pitching in multiple games per week. As you examine the athlete, you discover tenderness to palpation over the lateral aspect of his right shoulder.