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Stacey Pagorek

Column-editor : R. Barry Dale

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Bill Stodart, Maria Cup, and Curtis Kindel

relationship between surface EMG activity and isometric torque production of the infraspinatus in selected shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Comprising the posterior rotator cuff, infraspinatus and teres minor provide glenohumeral external rotation (ER), which functionally helps to clear the greater

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Robert T. Floyd, Kurt R. Behrhorst, and Stacey D. Walters

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Joseph S. Parry, Rachel Straub, and Daniel J. Cipriani

Context:

The Bodyblade Pro is used for shoulder rehabilitation after injury. Resistance is provided by blade oscillations—faster oscillations or higher speeds correspond to greater resistance. However, research supporting the Bodyblade Pro’s use is scarce, particularly in comparison with dumbbell training.

Objective:

To compare muscle activity, using electromyography (EMG), in the back and shoulder regions during shoulder exercises with the Bodyblade Pro vs dumbbells.

Design:

Randomized crossover study.

Setting:

San Diego State University biomechanics laboratory.

Participants:

11 healthy male subjects age 19–32 y.

Intervention:

Subjects performed shoulder-flexion and -abduction exercises using a Bodyblade Pro and dumbbells (5, 8, and 10 lb) while EMG recorded activity of the deltoid, pectoralis major, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and erector spinae.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average peak muscle activity (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was separately measured for shoulder abduction and flexion in the range of 85° to 95°. Differences among exercise devices were separately analyzed for the flexed and abducted positions using 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results:

The Bodyblade Pro produced greater muscle activity than all the dumbbell trials. Differences were significant for all muscles measured (all P < .01) except for the erector spinae during shoulder flexion with a 10-lb dumbbell. EMG activity for the Bodyblade Pro exceeded 50% of the MVIC during both shoulder flexion and abduction. For the dumbbell conditions, only the 10-lb trials approached this effect.

Conclusions:

Using a Bodyblade during shoulder exercises results in greater shoulder- and back-muscle recruitment than dumbbells. The Bodyblade Pro can activate multiple muscles in a single exercise and thereby minimize the need for multiple dumbbell exercises. The Bodyblade Pro is an effective device for shoulder- and back-muscle activation that warrants further use by clinicians interested in its use for rehabilitation.

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Darrin M. Smith

Column-editor : R. Barry Dale

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Kathleen A. Swanik, Kellie Huxel Bliven, and Charles Buz Swanik

Context:

There are contradictory data on optimal muscle-activation strategies for restoring shoulder stability. Further investigation of neuromuscular-control strategies for glenohumeral-joint stability will guide clinicians in decisions regarding appropriate rehabilitation exercises.

Objectives:

To determine whether subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor (anteroposterior force couple) muscle activation differ between 4 shoulder exercises and describe coactivation ratios and individual muscle-recruitment characteristics of rotator-cuff muscles throughout each shoulder exercise.

Design:

Crossover.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

healthy, physically active men, age 20.55 ± 2.0 y.

Interventions:

4 rehabilitation exercises: pitchback, PNF D2 pattern with tubing, push-up plus, and slide board.

Main Outcomes Measures:

Mean coactivation level, coactivation-ratio patterns, and level (area) of muscle-activation patterns of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor throughout each exercise.

Results:

Coactivation levels varied throughout each exercise. Subscapularis activity was consistently higher than that of the infraspinatus and teres minor combined at the start of each exercise and in end ranges of motion. Individual muscle-recruitment levels in the subscapularis were also different between exercises.

Conclusion:

Results provide descriptive data for determining normative coactivation-ratio values for muscle recruitment for the functional exercises studied. Differences in subscapularis activation suggest a reliance to resist anteriorly directed forces.

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Martha Walker, Donald Sussman, Michael Tamburello, Bonnie VanLunen, Elizabeth Dowling, and Beth Ernst Jamali

Context:

A strength-endurance diagram predicts that a person should be able to perform 30 repetitions of an exercise if the resistance level is 60% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM).

Objective:

To compare the number of repetitions predicted by the diagram with recorded repetitions of a shoulder exercise.

Design:

Single-group comparison with a standard.

Setting:

University.

Participants:

34 healthy adults (20 women, 14 men) with a mean age of 29 years (range 20–49).

Main Outcome Measures:

The number of repetitions that subjects could perform in good form of a shoulder exercise with resistance of 60% 1RM.

Results:

The mean number of repetitions was 21 (± 3, range 15–28), which was significantly different than the 30 repetitions that the diagram predicted.

Conclusions:

The strength-endurance diagram did not accurately predict the number of repetitions of a shoulder exercise that subjects could perform.

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W. Steven Tucker, Charles W. Armstrong, Erik E. Swartz, Brian M. Campbell, and James M. Rankin

Context:

Closed kinetic chain exercises are reported to provide a more functional rehabilitation outcome.

Objective:

To determine the amount of muscle activity in 4 shoulder muscles during exercise on the Cuff Link.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Subjects:

10 men and 10 women, age 18–50.

Intervention:

Subjects performed 3 sets of 5 revolutions on the Cuff Link in non-weight-bearing, partial-weight-bearing, and full-weight-bearing positions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Electromyography data were collected from the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major and were expressed as percentage of maximal isometric contractions.

Results:

Significant differences were found across the weight-bearing conditions for all 4 muscles. Exercise on the Cuff Link required minimal to significant amounts of muscle recruitment.

Conclusions:

Muscle recruitment increases as weight bearing increases during use of the Cuff Link, suggesting an increase in dynamic stabilization of the glenohumeral joint.

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Gretchen Oliver, Lisa Henning, and Hillary Plummer

The purpose of this study was to examine activations of selected scapular stabilizing musculature while performing an overhead throw with a hold (not releasing the ball) in two different throwing positions—standing with a crow hop and kneeling on the ipsilateral knee. Surface electromyography was used to examine activations of throwing side lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT), serratus anterior (SA), and upper trapezius (UT). Muscle activations were recorded while performing the overhead throw with holds while in two throwing positions. MANOVA results revealed no significant differences between the two throwing conditions and muscle activations of LT, MT, SA, and UT: F(8,124) = .804, p = .600; Wilks’s Λ = .904, partial η2 = .049. Although no significant differences were observed in the scapular stabilizers between the two conditions, moderate (21–50% MVIC) to high (> 50% MVIC) activations of each muscle were present, indicating that nonrelease throws may be beneficial for scapular stabilization in throwers.

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Jennifer L. Lister, Gianluca Del Rossi, Fangchao Ma, Mark Stoutenberg, Jessica B. Adams, Sara Tobkin, and Joseph F. Signorile

Context:

There are numerous ways to overload the scapular stabilizers.

Objectives:

To assess scapular stabilizer activity using the Bodyblade® and other traditional training devices.

Design:

Repeated measures analysis of surface EMG data collected from the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during shoulder flexion and abduction using Bodyblade®, cuff weight, and Thera-Band® resistance.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty collegiate athletes (20.0 ± 1.7 years).

Intervention:

Participants performed 10 repetitions of shoulder flexion and abduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

For each movement, normalized root mean square values (NrmsEMG) were computed for each muscle during each repetition under each training condition. Data were analyzed using 3 (condition) × 10 (repetition) repeated measures ANOVAs.

Results:

During shoulder flexion and abduction, the NrmsEMG of the UT, LT, and SA were significantly greater when using the Bodyblade® than the Thera-Band® or cuff weight.

Conclusion:

The Bodyblade® produces greater scapular activity than traditional resistance techniques.