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Simon P. Roberts, Keith A. Stokes, Lee Weston and Grant Trewartha

Purpose:

This study presents an exercise protocol utilizing movement patterns specific to rugby union forward and assesses the reproducibility of scores from this test.

Methods:

After habituation, eight participants (mean ± SD: age = 21 ± 3 y, height = 180 ± 4 cm, body mass = 83.9 ± 3.9 kg) performed the Bath University Rugby Shuttle Test (BURST) on two occasions, 1 wk apart. The protocol comprised 16 × 315-s cycles (4 × 21-min blocks) of 20-m shuttles of walking and cruising with 10-m jogs, with simulated scrummaging, rucking, or mauling exercises and standing rests. In the last minute of every 315-s cycle, a timed Performance Test was carried out, involving carrying a tackle bag and an agility sprint with a ball, followed by a 25-s recovery and a 15-m sprint.

Results:

Participants traveled 7078 m, spending 79.8 and 20.2% of time in low- and high-intensity activity, respectively. The coefficients of variation (CV) between trials 1 and 2 for mean time on the Performance Test (17.78 ± 0.71 vs 17.58 ± 0.79 s) and 15-m sprint (2.69 ± 0.15 vs 2.69 ± 0.15 s) were 1.3 and 0.9%, respectively. There was a CV of 2.2% between trials 1 and 2 for mean heart rate (160 ± 5 vs 158 ± 5 beats⋅min−1) and 14.4% for blood lactate (4.41 ± 1.22 vs 4.68 ± 1.68 mmol⋅L−1).

Conclusion:

Results suggest that measures of rugby union-specifc high-intensity exercise performed during the BURST were reproducible over two trials in habituated participants.

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Iñigo Mujika, Greg McFadden, Mark Hubbard, Kylie Royal and Allan Hahn

Purpose:

To develop and validate an intermittent match-fitness test for water-polo players.

Methods:

Eight male junior players performed the Water Polo Intermittent Shuttle Test (WIST) twice to assess test reliability. To assess test sensitivity and validity, 104 male and female players from different competition standards and playing positions were tested. Eighteen players performed the WIST 5 times throughout a season to track fitness changes. Twelve players performed the WIST 48 hours before 4 consecutive National League games, and coaches awarded individual match-fitness scores based on game performances to assess the relationship between match fitness and test results. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (Lablood) were measured during and after each test, respectively.

Results:

Test–retest performance values were 216 ± 90 vs 229 ± 96 m (r = .98, P = .0001, coefficient of variation [CV] = 5.4%), peak HR 190 ± 8 vs 192 ± 10 bpm (r = .96, P = .0002, CV = 1.2%), and Lablood 7.0 ± 1.8 vs 6.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L (r = .84, P = .0092, CV = 8.8%). Significant differences were observed among different standards of play (range junior regional females 102 ± 10 m, senior international males 401 ± 30 m) and playing positions (field players 305 ± 154 m, center forwards 255 ± 118, goal keepers 203 ± 135 m). Test performance was lower in the early season (344 ± 118 m) than the remainder of the season (range 459 ± 138 to 550 ± 176 m). WIST performance and match-fitness scores correlated for all field players (r = .57, P = .054) but more highly for field players other than center forwards (r = .83, P = .0027).

Conclusions:

The WIST is a reliable, sensitive, and valid match-fitness test for water-polo players. It could become a useful tool to assess the effects of different interventions on match fitness.

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Susan K. McVeigh, Andrew C. Payne and Shona Scott

This study examined the reliability and validity of the 20-meter shuttle test as a predictor of peak VO2 in Edinburgh school children. Thirty-three children (15 boys, 18 girls) performed three shuttle tests and three laboratory treadmill tests of peak VO2. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the prediction of peak VO2 (ml·kg−1·min−1) from shuttle run performance was improved by including skinfold thickness measurements in the prediction models, particularly with the female group. Predictive power was greatest for females when using maximal shuttle speed (kmhr−1) best of three repeat tests and triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (R 2 = .85, SEE = 2.4), and for males when using maximal shuttle speed (km·hr−1) best of three repeat tests and the sum of the triceps and subscapular skinfolds (R2 = .68, SEE = 3.23). When using shuttle run performance to predict peak VO2 (ml·kg−1·min−1) in children of this age group, body composition measures must be included in the equation.

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Paola Zamparo, Ivan Zadro, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Beato and Luigino Sepulcri

Shuttle runs can be used to study the physiological responses in sports (such as basketball) characterized by sprints (accelerations/decelerations) and changes of direction.

Purpose:

To determine the energy cost (C) of shuttle runs with different turning angles and over different distances (with different acceleration/deceleration patterns).

Methods:

Nine basketball players were asked to complete 6 intermittent tests over different distances (5, 10, 25 m) and with different changes of direction (180° at 5 and 25 m; 0°, 45°, 90°, and 180° at 10 m) at maximal speed (v ≍ 4.5 m/s), each composed by 10 shuttle runs of 10-s duration and 30-s recovery; during these runs oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate (Lab), and C were determined.

Results:

For a given shuttle distance (10 m) no major differences where observed in VO2 (~33 mL · min−1 · kg−1), Lab (~3.75 mM), and C (~21.2 J · m−1 · kg−1) when the shuttle runs were performed with different turning angles. For a given turning angle (180°), VO2 and Lab were found to increase with the distance covered (VO2 from 26 to 35 mL · min−1 · kg−1; Lab from 0.7 to 7.6 mM) while C was found to decrease with it (from 29.9 to 10.6 J · m−1 · kg−1); the relationship between C and d (m) is well described by C = 92.99 × d 0.656, R 2 = .971.

Conclusions:

The metabolic demands of shuttle tests run at maximal speeds can be estimated based on the running distance, while the turning angle plays a minor role in determining C.

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Rebecca Quinlan and Jessica A. Hill

polo simulation activity. 17 In contrast to this, positive effects of TCJ were observed in semiprofessional soccer players following the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). 14 Bell et al 14 observed improved recovery of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), countermovement jump

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Claudia Verret, Phillip Gardiner and Louise Béliveau

The purpose of this study was to assess fitness and gross motor performance of children with ADHD, including users and nonusers of methylphenidate medication. Seventy boys took part in the study. Fitness level of children with ADHD using medication or not, including body composition, flexibility, and muscular endurance, was similar to that of a control group. The only difference was observed for body mass index, which was lower in children with ADHD using medication. Aerobic capacity was also similar when measured by a treadmill test. A lower performance was observed when aerobic capacity was estimated using a field shuttle test, however, suggesting that the methodology used is important. Finally, both groups of children with ADHD presented significantly lower scores for locomotion skills.

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Ciaran Mac Donncha, Anthony W.S. Watson, Terence McSweeney and Daniel J. O’Donovan

The purpose was to examine the reliability of physical fitness items from the Eurofit Test Battery for adolescent males with mild mental retardation (MMR; n = 63, mean IQ = 63.0 ±11.5, mean age = 15.5 ± 1.2) and those without (n = 22, mean age = 15.6 ± 0.6). Males with MMR scored significantly lower (p ≤ .005) than those without on all items except sum of skinfolds, height, and weight. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) ranged from .94 to .99 for males with MMR and .85 to .99 for those without. Percentage error of the mean for all items ranged from 0.5 to 47.5% for participants with MMR and 0.4 to 32.2% for those without. ICCs indicated that Eurofit physical fitness test items are reliable measures for males with and without MMR. However, the percentage error of the mean is quite large for sit-and-reach and 20-m shuttle test (20-MST) items.

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Samuel Erith, Clyde Williams, Emma Stevenson, Siobhan Chamberlain, Pippa Crews and Ian Rushbury

This study examined the effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices (GI) on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male semi-professional soccer players (age 23 ± 2 y, body mass [BM] 73.7 ± 9.0 kg and maximal oxygen uptake 58 ± 1.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1) participated in two trials in a randomized cross-over design. On day 1, the subjects performed 90 min of an intermittent high-intensity shuttle running protocol [Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST)]. They then consumed a mixed high carbohydrate recovery diet (8 g/kg BM) consisting of either high (HGI) (GI: 70) or low (LGI) (GI: 35) GI foods. Twenty-two hours later (day 2) the subjects completed 75 min of the LIST (part A) followed by alternate sprinting and jogging to fatigue (part B). No differences were found between trials in time to fatigue (HGI 25.3 ± 4.0 min vs. LGI 22.9 ± 5.6 min, P = 0.649). Similarly, no differences were found between trials for sprint performance and distance covered during part B of the LIST. In conclusion, the GI of the diet during the 22 h recovery did not affect sprint and endurance performance the following day.

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Christie Tangalos, Samuel J. Robertson, Michael Spittle and Paul B. Gastin

Context:

Player match statistics in junior Australian football (AF) are not well documented, and contributors to success are poorly understood. A clearer understanding of the relationships between fitness and skill in younger players participating at the foundation level of the performance pathway in AF has implications for the development of coaching priorities (eg, physical or technical).

Purpose:

To investigate the relationships between indices of fitness (speed, power, and endurance) and skill (coach rating) on player performance (disposals and effective disposals) in junior AF.

Methods:

Junior male AF players (N = 156, 10–15 y old) were recruited from 12 teams of a single amateur recreational AF club located in metropolitan Victoria. All players were tested for fitness (20-m sprint, vertical jump, 20-m shuttle run) and rated by their coach on a 6-point Likert scale for skill (within a team in comparison with their teammates). Player performance was assessed during a single match in which disposals and their effectiveness were coded from a video recording.

Results:

Coach rating of skill displayed the strongest correlations and, combined with 20-m shuttle test, showed a good ability to predict the number of both disposals and effective disposals. None of the skill or fitness attributes adequately explained the percentage of effective disposals. The influence of team did not meaningfully contribute to the performance of any of the models.

Conclusions:

Skill development should be considered a high priority by coaches in junior AF.

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Daniel D. Cohen, Bingnan Zhao, Brian Okwera, Martyn J. Matthews and Anne Delextrat

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon).

Methods:

The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST).

Results:

The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P < .05). APTeccH increased from 7.1° ± 1.0° to 18.8° ± 4.2° (P < .05). Eccentric hamstrings peak torque significantly declined from 185.1 ± 70.4 N·m pre-LIST to 150.9 ± 58.5 N·m post-LIST (P = .002), but there were no significant changes in hamstrings or quadriceps concentric peak torque (P = .312, .169, respectively).

Conclusions:

Simulated soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.