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Faezeh Mohammadi Sanjani, Abbas Bahram, Moslem Bahmani, Mina Arvin, and John van der Kamp

, & Christoforou, 2014 ). Also, experimental studies using simulated driving have indicated that compared with mobile phone conversations, text messaging has much more detrimental effects on driving performance ( He, Chaparro, et al., 2014 ; Rumschlag et al., 2015 ). Presumably, text messaging not only forces the

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Nicholas P. Murray and Christopher M. Janelle

The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the Processing Efficiency Theory (PET) in the context of a dual-task auto racing simulation. Participants were placed into either high or low trait-anxiety groups and required to concurrently undertake a driving task while responding to one of four target LEDs upon presentation of either a valid or an invalid cue located in the central or peripheral visual field. Eye movements and dual-task performance were recorded under baseline and competition conditions. Anxiety was induced by an instructional set delivered prior to the competition condition. Findings indicated that while there was little change in driving performance from baseline to competition, response time was reduced for the low-anxious group but increased for the high-anxious group during the competitive session. Additionally there was an increase in search rate for both groups during the competitive session, indicating a reduction in processing efficiency. Implications of this study include a more comprehensive and mechanistic account of the PET and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety may result in a reduction of processing efficiency, with little change in performance effectiveness.

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ARTICLES The Effects of Texting, Sitting Surface Stability, and Balance Training on Simulated Driving Performance and Perceived Workload in Young and Older Drivers Faezeh Mohammadi Sanjani * Abbas Bahram * Moslem Bahmani * Mina Arvin * John van der Kamp * 01 10 2020 1 01 2021 25 1 1 18 10

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq, and Yori Gidron

.1080/17290376.2011.9724981 23237643 10.1080/17290376.2011.9724981 24. Gidron Y , Slor Z , Toderas S , Herz G , Friedman S . Effects of psychological inoculation on indirect road hostility and simulated driving . Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav . 2015 ; 30 : 153 – 162 . doi:10.1016/j.trf.2015.01.012 10.1016/j

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Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Kiminori Kato, Susumu S. Sawada, Haruki Momma, Motohiko Miyachi, I-Min Lee, Steven N. Blair, Minoru Tashiro, Chika Horikawa, Yasuhiro Matsubayashi, Takaho Yamada, Kazuya Fujihara, and Hirohito Sone

motion detection in glaucomatous eyes was more prolonged than that in control eyes. 32 It has also been reported that patients with glaucoma exhibited prolonged reaction time to a low-contrast stimulus during simulated driving and that retinal nerve fiber layer thickness loss was associated with

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Jongil Lim, Jiyeon Kim, Kyoungho Seo, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, and Sukho Lee

), 101 – 107 . PubMed ID: 21569892 doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2011.01.004 10.1016/j.jsr.2011.01.004 Strayer , D.L. , & Johnston , W.A. ( 2001 ). Driven to distraction: Dual-Task studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular telephone . Psychological Science, 12 ( 6 ), 462 – 466 . PubMed ID

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Liana M. Tennant, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joshua Kuest, Gabriel Lawrence, Kristen Levesque, David Owens, Jeremy Prisby, Sarah Spivey, Stephanie R. Albin, Kristen Jagger, Jeff M. Barrett, James D. Wong, and Jack P. Callaghan

. 2005 ; 5 ( 2 ): 145 – 154 . PubMed ID: 15749614 doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2004.07.036 15749614 10.1016/j.spinee.2004.07.036 31. De Carvalho DE , Callaghan JP . Passive stiffness changes in the lumbar spine and effect of gender during prolonged simulated driving . Int J Ind Ergon . 2011 ; 41 ( 6