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Eric J. Sprigings and Robert J. Neal

The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in theory, the clubhead speed at impact could be increased by an optimally timed wrist torque, without jeopardizing the desired club position at impact. A 2-D, three-segment model comprising torso, left arm, and golfclub was used to model the downward phase of the golf swing. Torque generators that adhered to the activation and force-velocity properties of muscle were inserted at the proximal end of each segment. Separate simulations were performed, with the wrist joint generator enabled then disabled. The results from these simulations showed that significant gains in clubhead speed (≈9 %) could be achieved if an active wrist torque was applied to the club during the latter stages of the downswing. For a swing that produced a clubhead speed of 44 m/s (≈99 mph), the optimal timing for the activation of wrist torque occurred when the arm segment was approximately 30° below a horizontal line through the shoulder joint. The optimal activation time for the joint generators was very much dependant on the shape of the torque profiles. The optimization process confirmed that maximum clubhead speed was achieved when the torque generators commenced in sequential order from proximal to distal.

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Antoine Falisse, Sam Van Rossom, Johannes Gijsbers, Frans Steenbrink, Ben J.H. van Basten, Ilse Jonkers, Antonie J. van den Bogert and Friedl De Groote

Musculoskeletal models for biomechanical simulations have become increasingly popular to analyze human movement. In addition to joint kinematics and kinetics, musculoskeletal models enable researchers and clinicians to assess other biomechanical variables, such as muscle lengths and forces

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Jianwei Duan, Kuan Wang, Tongbo Chang, Lejun Wang, Shengnian Zhang and Wenxin Niu

positive effect on improving the elastic modulus of cartilage and slowing cartilage degradation. Many clinical studies have proved that the Tai Chi had a positive effect on knee OA ( Chang et al., 2016 ; Zhu et al., 2016 ). A recent FE simulation showed that compared with walking, the peak contact stress

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Aaron Manzanares, Ruperto Menayo and Francisco Segado

, Romanel-Sur-Morges, Switzerland) reproduced images and provided a sound simulation. The VSail-Trainer ® has two hardware components: the cockpit and the computer. The computer controls the software and the navigation conditions, the projection, and the sound of the simulated situation. The cockpit is

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James M. Rhodes, Barry S. Mason, Thomas A.W. Paulson and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

athletes requires a multidisciplinary approach to session planning whereby coaches and practitioners manipulate the training environment to replicate the demands of international competition. 6 However, very few studies have explored the physical demands of WCR training. 7 – 9 Game-simulation drills are

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Jules Woolf and Jess C. Dixon

group dynamics in a way that replicates the reality we see in practice. One such approach that is popular in business education and health-related fields is the use of simulations. These are activities designed to proximate real-life situations where individuals and groups make decisions and learn the

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Jonathan P. Norris, Jamie Highton and Craig Twist

Controlled match simulations have been developed for rugby league that replicate the movement activities of both whole-match 1 and interchange players. 2 Simulations are useful given the large intermatch variation observed as a result of the technical and tactical demands of competitive rugby

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Stefan Sebastian Tomescu, Ryan Bakker, Tyson A.C. Beach and Naveen Chandrashekar

Musculoskeletal simulations of high-impact movements are being increasingly utilized to gain insight into body dynamics, injury mechanisms, and tissue loading. 1 – 3 Conducting these simulations involves collecting body marker and force platform data, calculating joint moments, and computing

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Hotaka Maeda, Chris C. Cho, Young Cho and Scott J. Strath

has not been compared empirically to each other. Therefore, the purpose of this semi-simulation study was to compare the accuracy of recently developed methods to estimate free-living average counts per day using all accelerometer data, including the invalid days. Methods Data from the publicly

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

studies have used standardized tests to compare surfaces because they have lower variance than soccer matches. This is true of the soccer simulation protocol (SSP) and the soccer-specific aerobic field test, which attempt to replicate the physiological and physical demands of real matches. 7 , 12 Authors