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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

and catabolic osteokines related to the Wnt signaling pathway and their responses to a single bout of high impact, that is, plyometric, exercise, between premenarcheal girls and postmenarcheal adolescent girls. There were 3 specific objectives: 1) to compare resting levels of SOST, DKK1, OPG, RANKL

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Carolyn Jimenez, Mayra Santiago, Michael Sitler, Guenther Boden and Carol Homko

Context:

Little is known about the acute effects of resistance exercise on insulin sensitivity in people with type 1 diabetes.

Design:

Repeated-measures design with 2 independent variables: group (exercise and nonexercise control) and time (preexercise and 12 and 36 h postexercise).

Setting:

General Clinical Research Center, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.

Patients:

14 physically active subjects (11 men and 3 women) with type 1 diabetes.

Intervention:

The exercise group completed 5 sets of 6 repetitions of strenuous (80% 1-RM) quadriceps and hamstring exercises while the control group performed only activities of daily Living.

Main Outcome Measures:

Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic-clamp technique preexercise and 12 and 36 h postexercise.

Results:

Insulin-sensitivity values were not significantly different between the exercise and control groups (P = .92) or over time (P = .67).

Conclusions:

A single bout of strenuous resistance exercise does not alter insulin sensitivity in people with type 1 diabetes.

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Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets and Rosa Angulo-Barroso

.3389/fnhum.2017.00182 Mang , C.S. , Snow , N.J. , Campbell , K.L. , Ross , C.J.D. , & Boyd , L.A. ( 2014 ). A single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise facilitates response to paired associative stimulation and promotes sequence-specific implicit motor learning . Journal of Applied

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Jean Gutierrez, Andrei Gribok, William Rumpler, Avinash Chandran and Loretta DiPietro

Background:

People with a family history of type 2 diabetes have lower energy expenditure (EE) and more obesity than those having no such family history. Resistance exercise (RE) may induce excess postexercise energy expenditure (EPEE) and reduce long-term risk for obesity in this susceptible group.

Purpose:

To determine the effect of RE on EPEE for 15 hr after a single exercise bout in healthy, untrained young men having a family history of type 2 diabetes.

Design:

Seven untrained men (23 ± 1.2 years, BMI 24 ± 1.1) completed a 48-hr protocol in a whole room calorimeter. The first day served as a control day, with a moderate 40-min RE bout occurring on the second day. Differences in postexercise EE were compared with matched periods from the control day for cumulative 15-min intervals (up to 150 min) and 15 hr after the RE bout was completed.

Results:

The most robust difference in EPEE between the experimental and control days was observed in the first 15-min postexercise period (M = 1.4Kcal/min; SD = 0.7; p < .05). No statistically significant differences in EPEE were noted beyond 90-min of continuous measurement.

Conclusions:

Young people with a family history of type 2 diabetes may not show EPEE after a single RE bout when observed for 15 hr after RE and long-term resistance training may be required to promote EPEE.

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Yael Netz, Esther Argov and Omri Inbar

A recent study indicated that acute aerobic exercise improves cognitive flexibility in adults. The current study assessed age, habitual physical activity, and physical fitness as moderators of this improvement and examined whether the gains still exist an hour after the exercise session. The alternative-uses test, assessing cognitive flexibility, was administered individually to 20 older (age 63.67 ± 3.55 yr) and 19 young (age 23.9 ± 1.22) women before, immediately after, and an hour after a single moderate aerobic-exercise session. Results indicated significant improvement in cognitive flexibility in the older group immediately after the exercise but a decrease at the 1-hr follow-up. Further analysis indicated that physical fitness accounted for this improvement (R = –.622, p < .01). No such differences were observed in the young group. Further studies are needed to examine the duration of this effect, as well as the role of physical fitness as a moderator of it.

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Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

studies have focused on strategies to counter the impairment. Exercise may have the potential to alter these proposed underlying mechanisms ( Saner et al., 2018 ). A single bout of exercise positively impacts glucose regulation for up to 24 hr ( Koopman et al., 2005 ). This improvement in glucose

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Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block and Rebecca E. Hasson

present study. While 33% of the present study’s participant sample was OW/OB, and 20% exhibited elevated BP, a single bout of prolonged sitting may be insufficient to produce hypertensive effects in this pediatric population. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly measure BP in response to

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Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith and James F. Markworth

. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of CHO supplementation after a single bout of maximal eccentric resistance exercise (ECC RE) training on the subsequent activation of key anabolic proteins involved in muscle protein metabolism. Materials and Methods Study Overview This

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Dana M. Otzel, Chris J. Hass, Erik A. Wikstrom, Mark D. Bishop, Paul A. Borsa and Mark D. Tillman

is warranted. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if a single bout of WBV can acutely improve AMI by examining H-reflex and proprioception via joint position sense (JPS) in individuals with CAI. As the soleus has been observed predominantly in WBV research, we examined the soleus for our MN

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Kara K. Palmer, Matthew W. Miller and Leah E. Robinson

A growing body of research has illuminated beneficial effects of a single bout of physical activity (i.e., acute exercise) on cognitive function in school-age children. However, the influence of acute exercise on preschoolers’ cognitive function has not been reported. To address this shortcoming, the current study examined the effects of a 30-min bout of exercise on preschoolers’ cognitive function. Preschoolers’ cognitive function was assessed following a single bout of exercise and a single sedentary period. Results revealed that, after engaging in a bout of exercise, preschoolers exhibited markedly better ability to sustain attention, relative to after being sedentary (p = .006, partial eta square = .400). Based on these findings, providing exercise opportunities appears to enhance preschoolers’ cognitive function.