Imagery is one of the most widely-researched topics in sport psychology. Recent research has been focused on how imagery works and how to apply it to have the greatest possible performance effect. However, the amount of imagery needed to produce optimal effects has been under-researched, particularly in relation to the PETTLEP model of imagery (Holmes & Collins, 2001). This study examined the effects of differing frequencies of PETTLEP imagery on bicep curl performance, using a single-case design. Following a baseline period, participants completed PETTLEP imagery 1×/week, 2×/week, or 3×/week in a counterbalanced pattern. Results indicated that PETTLEP imagery had a positive effect on performance. In addition, as the frequency of imagery increased, a larger performance effect was apparent. These results support the notion that PETTLEP imagery can lead to strength gains if performed at least 1× per week, but that completing imagery more frequently may be more effective.
Caroline Wakefield and Dave Smith
Evangelos Vertopoulos and Martin J. Turner
The present study examined the effects of a rational emotive personal-disclosure mutual-sharing (REPDMS) intervention on the rational and irrational beliefs of a group of Greek adolescent athletes that had previously participated in four rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) educational workshops. Measurements were taken before REBT workshops (baseline), during the REBT workshop period, and after the REPDMS session (postintervention). Further, a comparison group received REBT education, but did not receive REPDMS, allowing the between-subjects comparison between participants who received REPDMS and participants who did not. Findings support the hypotheses that REPDMS has positive effects on further reducing irrational beliefs, enhancing rational beliefs, and prolonging the duration of these positive effects, over and above REBT education alone. Qualitative inspection of the REPDMS transcript also revealed participant perceptions of REBT, and served to stimulate critical author reflections on REPDMS.
Chris G. Harwood, Jamie B. Barker, and Richard Anderson
This study examined the effectiveness of a longitudinal 5C coaching intervention (Harwood, 2008), focused on promoting behavioral responses associated with commitment, communication, concentration, control, and confidence in youth soccer players. Five players, their parents and a youth academy soccer coach participated in a single-case multiple-baseline across individuals design with multiple treatments. Following baseline, the coach received sequential education in the principles of each C subsequent to integrating relevant strategies in their coaching sessions. During the five intervention phases, players completed assessments of their behavior in training associated with each C, triangulated with observationbased assessments by the coach and the players’ parents. Results indicated psychosocial improvements with cumulative increases in positive psychosocial responses across the intervention for selected players. Changes in player behavior were also corroborated by parent and coach data in conjunction with postintervention social validation. Findings are discussed with respect to the processes engaged in the intervention, and the implications for practitioners and applied researchers.
Karin Moesch, Andreas Ivarsson, and Urban Johnson
intervention leads to higher levels in facets of mindfulness (nonreactivity, acting with awareness), acceptance, and well-being, and to lower levels of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Method Design A multiple-baseline single-case design with staggered and nonconcurrent baselines was applied. This design
Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant, and Tony Morris
“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.
Stu Ryan and Beverly Yerg
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of feedback given to (a) target student(s) from same sector (close by) and (b) opposite sectors (at a distance) on the off-task behavior of middle school physical education students. The design used in this investigation was a reversal A-B-A-B with two treatments, single case design across subjects. The two treatments (independent variables) were same sector feedback and opposite sector feedback. Data were collected on the dependent variable of off-task behavior and the variables of rate and type of feedback, student and teacher location, and teacher movement. Results indicated consistency in the decline of off-task behavior for all classes when opposite sector (crossgroup) feedback was implemented, which suggests that teacher feedback at a distance can be an effective technique for reducing student off-task behavior. In all but one case, off-task behavior rates reduced markedly at the point when the intervention was introduced. The results also indicated both participating teachers tended to use more skill feedback and less management feedback with their classes when using crossgroup feedback.
Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak
with Parkinson’s disease: a single case design . New Zeal J Physiother . 2012 ; 40 : 117 – 122 . 21. Van Eijkeren FJ , Reijmers RS , Kleinveld MJ , et al . Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson’s disease . Mov Disord . 2008 ; 23 : 2239 – 2243 . PubMed ID: 18816697 doi:10.1002/mds
Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth, and Melbourne F. Hovell
. Phase B + began at the start of February and lasted 8 weeks, with the final return-to-baseline condition ending at the start of May. The use of a single-case design is rooted in and consistent with applied behavior analysis research, 23 on which this study was modeled. We employed a hybrid reversal
Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower
gymnastic performance and psychological-skill development in an elite gymnastics academy. Adopting a multiple-baseline single-case design, 10 elite (i.e., national-level) female gymnasts (mean age 12.0 years) followed a five-step PST program consisting of relaxation (eight sessions), self-talk (five
Jennifer K. Sansom and Beverly D. Ulrich
’s disease: A single case design . New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 40 ( 3 ), 117 – 122 . Bowen , T.R. , Cooley , S.R. , Castagno , P.W. , Miller , F. , & Richards , J. ( 1998 ). A method for normalization of oxygen cost and oxygen consumption in normal children while walking . Journal