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Pauli Rintala, Heikki Lyytinen and John M. Dunn

The effects of a 4-month physical activity program on physical fitness, balance, and ball skills were examined. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to study the effects of training on static and dynamic balance, physical fitness, and the motor skills of catching and throwing. The subjects were eight 7- to 11-year-old, ambulatory, hemiplegic or diplegic cerebral palsy children. The results indicated slight overall improvement in physical fitness. The specific balance training was not effective, with improvements in dynamic balance noted in only one subject. The specific ball training improved target throw skill in all subjects, but catching skill scores varied greatly, with none of the subjects showing consistent improvement.

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Alan D. Ruddock, Craig Boyd, Edward M. Winter and Mayur Ranchordas

Case studies are vehicles to bridge the gap between science and practice because they provide opportunities to blend observations and interventions that have taken place in real-world environments with scientific rigor. The purpose of this invited commentary is to present considerations for those providing applied sport science support to athletes with the intention of broadcasting this information to the scientific community. The authors present a 4-phased approach (1: athlete overview; 2: needs analysis; 3: intervention planning; and 4: results, evaluation, and conclusion) for scientific support to assist practitioners in the development and implementation of scientific support. These considerations are presented in the form of “performance questions” designed to guide and critically evaluate the scientific support process and aid the transfer of this knowledge through case studies.

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

Adults with intellectual disability have significantly lower musculoskeletal fitness than their peers without a disability. Appropriate instructional strategies are needed to facilitate their acquisition and maintenance of musculoskeletal fitness. In this multiple-baseline across-participants single-subject study, the authors evaluated the effects of a multicomponent package that included a video-enhanced system of least-to-most prompts on the acquisition of 5 muscle-strengthening exercises in 3 women with mild intellectual disability, age 24–37 yr. Results show substantive gains in correct and independent performance of steps in the 5 exercises during the treatment condition. The improved performance was maintained 2 wk after the last treatment session and in a large YMCA gym. The study suggests that use of the video-enhanced system of least-to-most prompts can lead to improved acquisition and maintenance of muscle-strengthening exercises by adults with mild intellectual disability.

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Phillip Ward and Tim Barrett

This article provides an overview of behavior analysis, reviewing its history and the experimental research conducted in physical education settings. Articles were selected from five journals by looking through each issue to identify those that used a single-subject design to assess the effects of behavioral interventions in P–12 or teacher preparation settings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized according to their focus: (a) preservice or inservice teacher behavior; (b) student learning; (c) class management; or (d) student learning specifically focused on students with disabilities in adapted or inclusive settings. The review describes the scope of the behavioral interventions and examines the research designs used. A methodological critique suggests that while findings have been robust and the designs used were typically rigorous, researchers have not assessed generality, maintenance, or social validity as well as they might. The article closes with recommendations for reviewers and authors.

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Larry Lauer and Craig Paiement

The Playing Tough and Clean Hockey Program was developed to teach youth hockey players ages 12 and older to play within the rules and enhance their ability to respond positively to their negative emotions (i.e., through emotional toughness). Hockey players were taught cognitive and emotional skills within a 3 R’s routine to decrease aggressive acts. Three youth ice hockey players identified as frequently exhibiting aggressive behaviors participated in 10 sessions. A single-subject design was used to analyze participants’ aggressive behaviors as well as emotional toughness. Results reveal slight improvements in all participants, with the largest reductions in retaliatory and major aggressive acts. Several key implications for practice are provided including the use of routines and managing emotional responses.

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Nilam Ram and Penny McCullagh

Although self-modeling has been effective in modifying behaviors in a variety of settings, little research has been completed in the physical domain. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of self-modeling on performance and self-efficacy using a sport skill and to explore the cognitive processes underlying self-modeling. A multiple baseline single-subject design was used wherein five intermediate level volleyball players were given a self-modeling intervention. Performance outcome results indicated that self-modeling may contribute to increases in serve accuracy. Performance form and selfefficacy results were inconclusive. Using a think-aloud protocol, it was noted that although the participants found the images of themselves “shocking,” the images command cognitive resources. Postintervention interviews revealed that participants found the self-modeling intervention useful and that it led to changes in behavior and motivation.

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Janelle J.M. Johnson, Dennis W. Hrycaiko, Gary V. Johnson and Joannie M. Halas

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching skilled athletes to use self-talk (ST) and gain insight on the athlete’s perceptions of the ST intervention and how it influenced their performance. The participants were four female players from an “elite” under fourteen female regional soccer team. A single-subject design, the multiple baseline across individuals, was used to examine the effects of the ST strategy on performance. The results of the study demonstrated that the ST strategy improved soccer shooting performance for two of the three experimental participants. The social validity assessment found that both the coach and the participants were very satisfied with the results and believed the ST strategy to be an important component in improving their performance.

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Carlos M. Cervantes and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an after school physical activity intervention on adolescents with visual impairments within the context of Social Cognitive Theory. Four adolescents with visual impairments (1 female, 3 males) between 14 and 19 years of age from a residential school for the blind served as participants. We used a range-bound changing criterion single-subject design. Physical activity was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on selected social cognitive theory constructs. Results show that the intervention exerted functional control over the target behaviors (e.g., leisure-time physical activity) during intervention phases. Similarly, changes in scores for selected social cognitive constructs, in particular for outcome expectancy value, suggest a positive relationship between those constructs and physical activity behavior. No maintenance effects were observed.

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Patrick Ward, Aaron J. Coutts, Ricard Pruna and Alan McCall

JG , Cox ME . Analyzing single-subject design data using statistical process control charts . Social Work Research . 2001 ; 25 ( 2 ): 115 – 127 . doi:10.1093/swr/25.2.115 10.1093/swr/25.2.115 20. Ritchie D , Hopkins WG , Buchheit M , Courdy J , Bartlett JD . Quantification of

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Dominique C. Leibbrandt and Quinette A. Louw

series of single subject design (n = 1) on a larger sample (30 participants) with each subject acting as his or her own control and receiving more motion analysis assessments at regular intervals throughout the intervention period. McMaster University’s hierarchy of evidence ranks this study design as