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Sunghoon Shin and Jacob J. Sosnoff

is disturbed. Several studies examining the biomechanics of sitting posture also found that postural constraints, such as spine angles and footrest status, can affect sitting balance ( Andersson, Ortengren, Nachemso, & Elfström, 1974 ; Bolin, Bodin, & Kreuter, 2000 ; Harrison, Harrison, Croft

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Ziva M. Rosker, Jernej Rosker and Nejc Sarabon

involved side as compared with the control group, and (3) body sway control during sitting balance tasks in the experimental group has a higher correlation to other standing balance tasks than the subjects in the control group. Methods Participants A total of 52 participants (27 patients and 25 healthy

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V. Marie Fox, Valorie A. Lawlor and Marvin W. Luttges

A novel test instrument was designed to objectively quantify the progress of persons who participated in therapeutic horseback riding programs. Nineteen handicapped children, ages 7 to 14 years, with heterogeneous impairments were evaluated before and after riding. For measures of sitting balance and coordination, and hand, hip, knee, and ankle strength, marked improvements were noted for most children. Clinical impressions of therapists and parents suggested concomitant progress in characteristics such as self-confidence and interaction with others. Results from this pilot study appeared to support the use of the apparatus in that field setting.

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Asuman Saltan and Handan Ankarali


To compare classification levels and trunk stabilization of wheelchair basketball players and to identify their norm values of trunk balance.


113 wheelchair basketball players in the super and first Turkish leagues.


A modified Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) (version 4.1) was used to evaluate trunk stabilization. Two skills were chosen that correspond to the stationary wheelie activity in WST, the 30-s stationary wheelie and stationary wheelie in 180°.

Main Outcome Measure:

There are no statistical differences between WST rates and point means.


The skills and success and safety rates of the players with 1.5 points (51.9%, 44.4%) were lower than those of the players with 1.0 point (70%, 66.7%). In players with 2.5 and 2.0 points, the most successful and safest percentage values were 78.6%, 78.6% and 82.1%, 75%.


Although it is expected that trunk stabilization would be better in players with high points, in our study we encountered conflicting results between the points and sitting balance or trunk stabilization. Our study supports the studies in the literature suggesting modifications in the functional-classification system.

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Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ

trainers can be implemented. Many of the exercises involved in the examined studies are commonly used by athletic trainers to improve balance and proprioception for a multitude of lower extremity injuries. There are five main categories of vestibular exercises: (a) eye-head coordination, (b) sitting

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

, Gonzalez LM . Sitting balance and limits of stability in persons with paraplegia . Spinal Cord . 2013 ; 51 ( 4 ): 267 – 272 . PubMed ID: 23184029 doi:10.1038/sc.2012.148 23184029 10.1038/sc.2012.148 5. Coutinho AC , Neto F , Beraldo PS . Validity of heart rate indexes to assess wheeling

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Valeria Rosso, Laura Gastaldi, Walter Rapp, Stefan Lindinger, Yves Vanlandewijck, Sami Äyrämö and Vesa Linnamo

; however, this technique is quite demanding for practical issue ( Borghuis et al., 2008 ), especially in people with spinal cord injury. An alternative method for assessing trunk stability during a sitting balance task is to evaluate reactions to perturbations of the center of pressure ( Hendershot

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

. , & Thorstensson , A. ( 2004 ). Sitting balance and effects of kayak training in paraplegics . Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 36 ( 3 ), 110 – 116 . PubMed ID: 15209453 doi:10.1080/16501970310020401 10.1080/16501970310020401 Hurt , C.P. , & Grabiner , M.D. ( 2015 ). Age-related differences in the