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Stephanie Alley, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Mitch J. Duncan, Katrien De Cocker, Stephanie Schoeppe, Amanda L. Rebar and Corneel Vandelanotte

Bureau of Statistics, 2012 ). Therefore, due to the high levels of sitting time in older adults and the health benefits of reducing sitting time, interventions are needed to reduce sitting in older adults. It is necessary to distinguish between different domains of sitting (TV, computer, other leisure

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Amber Watts, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal and Paul Gardiner

vigorous physical activity ( Thyfault et al., 2015 ). Total daily sitting time in people who achieve recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity may not differ from those not meeting physical activity guidelines ( Craft et al., 2012 ). Thus, sitting is not merely the lack of moderate to

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Natasha Reid, Justin W. Keogh, Paul Swinton, Paul A. Gardiner and Timothy R. Henwood

emphasis on reducing sitting time may be a more acceptable modality of intervention ( Sparling, Howard, Dunstan, & Owen, 2015 ), that could eventually lead to participation in structured exercise programs. Few studies have examined the health impacts of high levels of sitting time among RAC residents

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Stacy A. Clemes, Beverley M. David, Yi Zhao, Xu Han and Wendy Brown

Background:

In light of evidence linking sedentary behaviors to health outcomes, there have been calls for the measurement of sedentary behavior in surveillance studies. This study examined the convergent validity of 2 self-report measures of sitting time and accelerometer-determined sedentary time (minutes/day of <100 counts/minute).

Methods:

44 adults wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days, during which they also recorded daily sitting time in a diary, in response to a single-item question. After 7 days, participants completed a new domain-specific questionnaire to assess usual weekday and weekend-day sitting time. Total sitting times recorded from the self-report measures were compared with accelerometer-determined sedentary time.

Results:

Total sitting time calculated from the domain-specific questionnaire did not differ significantly from accelerometer-determined sedentary time on weekdays (mean difference [±SE] = –14 ± 28 mins/day) and weekend days (–4 ± 45 mins/day, both P > .05). Sitting time was significantly underestimated using the single-item specific-day question on weekdays (–173 ± 18 mins/day) and weekend days (–219 ± 23 mins/day, both P < .001).

Conclusions:

When assessed via self-report, the estimation of total sitting time is improved by summing sitting times reported across different domains. The continued improvement of self-report measures of sitting time will be important if we are to further our understanding of the links between sedentary behavior and health.

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Jannique G. Z. van Uffelen, Kristiann C. Heesch and Wendy Brown

Background:

While there is emerging evidence that sedentary behavior is negatively associated with health risk, research on the correlates of sitting time in adults is scarce.

Methods:

Self-report data from 7724 women born between 1973–1978 and 8198 women born between 1946–1951 were collected as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Linear regression models were computed to examine whether demographic, family and caring duties, time use, health, and health behavior variables were associated with weekday sitting time.

Results:

Mean sitting time (SD) was 6.60 (3.32) hours/day for the 1973–1978 cohort and 5.70 (3.04) hours/day for the 1946–1951 cohort. Indicators of socioeconomic advantage, such as full-time work and skilled occupations in both cohorts and university education in the mid-age cohort, were associated with high sitting time. A cluster of ‘healthy behaviors’ was associated with lower sitting time in the mid-aged women (moderate/high physical activity levels, nonsmoking, nondrinking). For both cohorts, sitting time was highest in women in full-time work, in skilled occupations, and in those who spent the most time in passive leisure.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that, in young and mid-aged women, interventions for reducing sitting time should focus on both occupational and leisure-time sitting.

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Rachel A. Millstein, Katherine D. Hoerster, Dori E. Rosenberg, Karin M. Nelson, Gayle Reiber and Brian E. Saelens

Background:

Sedentary behavior is an increasingly recognized health risk factor, independent of physical activity. Although several correlates of sedentary behavior are known, little research has identified them among U.S. veterans, a population that faces disproportionate chronic disease burden.

Methods:

A survey was mailed to 1997 randomly selected veterans at a large urban Veterans Affairs medical center in 2012 and remailed in 2013 to nonresponders, resulting in a 40% response rate. We examined individual-, social-, and neighborhood-level factors in association with self-reported sitting time. Factors correlated with sitting time at P < .05 were included in a multiple linear regression model.

Results:

In the multivariate model, higher depression (B = 7.8), body mass index (B = 5.1), functional impairment (B = 4.2), and self-rated health (B = 68.5) were significantly associated with higher sitting time, and leisure time physical activity (B = –0.10) and being employed (B = –71.3) were significantly associated with lower sitting time.

Conclusions:

Individual-level, but not social- and neighborhood-level, variables were associated with sitting time in this population. This study identified individual-level targets for reducing sitting time and improving overall health among veterans.

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Carolyn E. Barlow, Kerem Shuval, Bijal A. Balasubramanian, Darla E. Kendzor and Kelley Pettee Gabriel

Background:

Prolonged sitting time is associated with numerous health outcomes; however, the role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in these relationships is largely unexplored. The cross-sectional association between reported sitting time and measured CRF was examined in a large study of healthy men and women.

Methods:

The analytic sample included 4658 men and 1737 women enrolled in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models were constructed to examine the association between sitting time and CRF, stratified by sex and meeting (or not) meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines.

Results:

In men, CRF was not associated with sitting time after adjustment for potential confounders. In contrast, for women, after adjustment there was a significant association between increased sitting time and lower CRF (P for trend <.001). When stratified by meeting or not meeting PA guidelines, there was no association between sitting time and CRF in men. In women, this relationship was statistically significant regardless of PA category (both P for trend < .05).

Conclusions:

These results suggest that the association between sitting time and CRF varies by sex. Further, meeting PA guidelines does not appear to modify this relation in either sex.

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Geoffrey Whitfield, Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

Emerging evidence suggests that combined physical activity (PA) and inactivity may be more important for chronic disease risk than PA alone. A highly active yet highly sedentary population is needed to study this interaction. The present purpose is to describe the sitting habits of a group of recreational runners and determine if sitting varies with reported training duration or anticipated running velocity.

Methods:

Marathon and half-marathon participants completed the Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire and reported peak training duration, anticipated finishing time, and demographic information. Sitting time was described across 5 contexts for workdays and nonworkdays. Total sitting time was analyzed by tertiles of training duration and anticipated event running velocity.

Results:

218 participants took part in this study. Median reported training time was 6.5 hours per week. Median total sitting time was higher on workdays than nonworkdays (645 and 480 minutes, respectively, P < .0001). Total sitting time was not associated with training duration or anticipated event running velocity.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that recreational distance runners are simultaneously highly sedentary and highly active, supporting independence of sedentary behaviors and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. This population may provide the characteristics needed to study the joint effects of active and sedentary behaviors on health outcomes.

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Joilson Meneguci, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Alvaro Santos, Lucia Marina Scatena and Renata Damião

Background:

Quality of life is influenced by several factors and one aspect that has been negatively associated with health is sedentary behavior. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between sitting time and quality of life in older adults.

Methods:

This was a cross-sectional study conducted with individuals ≥60 years old residing in 24 Brazilian municipalities. Total sitting time was evaluated according to self-report of sitting time on a regular weekday and usual weekend day. The quality of life was evaluated by the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD instruments.

Results:

3206 older adults were analyzed. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, all domain and facets of quality of life were associated to the longest sitting time; however, in the multivariate analysis, only the physical domain and the social participation facet remained significant in the model. After adjustment for sex, age group, education and regular practice of physical activity, longest sitting time remained associated with the lowest score for the physical domain (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39–2.34) and social participation facet (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.10–1.84).

Conclusions:

In this study, older adults who sat the most presented the worst scores in the physical domain and social participation facet of quality of life.

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Maria E. Hermosillo-Gallardo, Russell Jago and Simon J. Sebire

Background:

Approximately 17.4% of people in Mexico self-report physical activity levels below the World Health Organization’s guidelines and an average sedentary time of 16 hours per day.1 Low physical activity has been associated with noncommunicable disease risk factors and previous research suggests that urbanicity might be an important determinant of physical activity. The aim of this study was to measure urbanicity in Mexico and assess if it is associated with physical activity and sitting time.

Methods:

A sample of 2880 men and 4211 women aged 20 to 69 was taken from the 2012 Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity, sitting time and urbanicity; adjusting for sex, education level, socioeconomic status and Body Mass Index. The urbanicity score and the 7 urbanicity subscores were estimated from the CENSUS 2010.

Results:

The subscores of demographic, economic activity, diversity and communication were negatively associated with physical activity. Sitting time was positively associated with the overall urbanicity, and the demographic and health subscores.

Conclusions:

There was evidence of associations between urbanicity and physical activity in Mexico.