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Chiharu Iwasaka, Tsubasa Mitsutake and Etsuo Horikawa

The loss of skeletal muscle mass in older adults is related to functional impairment, disability, and mortality ( Balogun et al., 2017 ; Baumgartner et al., 1998 ; Janssen, Heymsfield, & Ross, 2002 ). Evidence from sarcopenia-related research has increased, focusing on maintaining and improving

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Ademar Avelar, Witalo Kassiano, João Pedro Nunes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Andreo F. Aguiar, Michele C.C. Trindade, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

synthesis and, thus, contribute to muscle mass accretion ( Farshidfar et al., 2017 ; Schoenfeld, 2010 ). The simultaneous analysis of changes in total body water (TBW) and its extracellular water (ECW) and ICW components may help explain the changes that occur in skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in response to

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Leonard S. Jefferson and Scot R. Kimball

Gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is due largely to the establishment of an imbalance between rates of protein synthesis and degradation. A key determinant of the rate of protein synthesis is translation initiation, a process regulated in part through binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA (met-tRNAi) and messenger RNA (mRNA) to a 40S ribosomal subunit. Either the met-tRNAi or mRNA binding step can become limiting for protein synthesis. Furthermore, the mRNA binding step can modulate translation of specific mRNAs with or without changes in the overall rate of protein synthesis. This report highlights molecular mechanisms involved in mediating control of the mRNA binding step in translation initiation. Particular attention is given to the effect of exercise on this step and to how the branched-chain amino acid leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis after exercise. Potential mechanisms for exercise induced increase in muscle mass are discussed.

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Grant M. Tinsley and Brett S. Nickerson

the greater quantity of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). It is estimated that approximately 75% of SMM is contained in the appendages ( Buckinx et al., 2018 ), and equations have been developed to predict total-body SMM from DXA-derived appendicular LST (ALST). DXA ALST is accepted as a surrogate measure

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

Biological aging is associated with a progressive reduction in strength and skeletal muscle mass (SMM), a condition commonly known as sarcopenia, and these alterations show a negative correlation with health, quality of life, and survival in older women ( Brady et al., 2014 ; Clark & Manini, 2010

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. Body Composition A spectral bioelectrical impedance device (Xitron Hydra; Xitron, San Diego, CA) was used to estimate the total body water, body fat (%), resistance ( R ), and reactance ( X c). The skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated by the

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Kosuke Kojima, Christopher L. Brammer, Tyler D. Sossong, Takashi Abe and Joel M. Stager

thickness at 9 sites of the body; Experience, competitive swimming experience; %Fat, percentage of body fat; MTT sum , sum of muscle tissue thickness at 9 sites; SMM, skeletal muscle mass. *Significant difference between weeks 0 and 11 ( P  < .05). Anthropometric, Body Composition, and Muscle Size and Mass

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Erik Sesbreno, Gary Slater, Margo Mountjoy and Stuart D.R. Galloway

model to estimate body composition ( Drinkwater & Ross, 1980 ). The Drinkwater four-way fractionation model uses the unisex phantom model to partition total body mass into four compartments—FM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM; intramuscular adipose tissue included), bone mass, and residual mass ( Drinkwater

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

even higher in Spain (37%) ( Salvà et al., 2016 ). The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) defines this syndrome as a gradual and widespread loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. As a result, mobility disorders appear, such as an increased risk of falls and fractures

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

differences in the established sexual dimorphisms in skeletal-muscle mass and potential for producing metabolic power, more recent investigations have shown relatively steady sex differences in performance over the past couple of decades. 4 – 6 Accordingly, an updated overview of sex differences in