international rugby union match-play to be as high as 175 (22) m·min −1 for a 1-minute rolling mean. Furthermore, previous research has indicated that there is a drop in distance covered and skill involvements from less experienced, younger players following an intense period of play compared with more
Dale B. Read, Ben Jones, Sean Williams, Padraic J. Phibbs, Josh D. Darrall-Jones, Greg A.B. Roe, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Andrew Rock and Kevin Till
Rich D. Johnston, Tim J. Gabbett, David G. Jenkins and Michael J. Speranza
To assess the impact of different repeated-high-intensity-effort (RHIE) bouts on player activity profiles, skill involvements, and neuromuscular fatigue during small-sided games.
22 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 24.0 ± 1.8 y, body mass 95.6 ± 7.4 kg).
During 4 testing sessions, they performed RHIE bouts that each differed in the combination of contact and running efforts, followed by a 5-min off-side small-sided game before performing a second bout of RHIE activity and another 5-min small-sided game. Global positioning system microtechnology and video recordings provided information on activity profiles and skill involvements. A countermovement jump and a plyometric push-up assessed changes in lower- and upper-body neuromuscular function after each session.
After running-dominant RHIE bouts, players maintained running intensities during both games. In the contact-dominant RHIE bouts, reductions in moderate-speed activity were observed from game 1 to game 2 (ES = –0.71 to –1.06). There was also moderately lower disposal efficiency across both games after contact-dominant RHIE activity compared with running-dominant activity (ES = 0.62–1.02). Greater reductions in lower-body fatigue occurred as RHIE bouts became more running dominant (ES = –0.01 to –1.36), whereas upper-body fatigue increased as RHIE bouts became more contact dominant (ES = –0.07 to –1.55).
Physical contact causes reductions in running intensity and the quality of skill involvements during game-based activities. In addition, the neuromuscular fatigue experienced by players is specific to the activities performed.
William E. Moore and John R. Stevenson
The concept of trust in performing complex automatic motor skills involves letting go of conscious controlling tendencies often learned during skill acquisition. Theories of motor control provide a framework for automatic selection and execution of movement sequences during skilled performance. Trust is viewed as a psychological skill in which the athlete releases conscious control over movements, thus allowing the automatic execution of the schema that have been developed through training. This paper defines and characterizes trust and its role in the performance of automatic sport skills, with the goal of suggesting a path for applied research concerning trust and sport skills performance.
Courtney Sullivan, Johann C. Bilsborough, Michael Cianciosi, Joel Hocking, Justin T. Cordy and Aaron J. Coutts
To determine the physical activity measures and skill-performance characteristics that contribute to coaches’ perception of performance and player performance rank in professional Australian Football (AF).
Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (GPS and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill-performance measure and player-rank scores (Champion Data Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical-performance variables, skill involvements, and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. A stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the contribution of physical activity and skill involvements to coaches’ perception of performance and player rank in AF.
Stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that 42.2% of the variance in coaches’ perception of a player’s performance could be explained by the skill-performance characteristics (player rank/min, effective kicks/min, pressure points/min, handballs/min, and running bounces/min), with a small contribution from physical activity measures (accelerations/min) (adjusted R 2 = .422, F 6,282 = 36.054, P < .001). Multiple regression also revealed that 66.4% of the adjusted variance in player rank could be explained by total disposals/min, effective kicks/min, pressure points/min, kick clangers/min, marks/min, speed (m/min), and peak speed (adjusted R 2 = .664, F 7,281 = 82.289, P < .001). Increased physical activity throughout a match (speed [m/min] β – 0.097 and peak speed β – 0.116) negatively affects player rank in AF.
Skill performance rather than increased physical activity is more important to coaches’ perception of performance and player rank in professional AF.
Tim J. Gabbett, Ben Walker and Shane Walker
To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during gamebased activities.
Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals.
Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition.
These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.
Cecilia Hoi Sze Chan, Amy Sau Ching Ha and Johan Yau Yin Ng
terms of mastery in common FMS, which fall into three broad categories: locomotor, object-control, and stability skills ( Gallahue, Ozmun, & Goodway, 2012 ). Locomotor skills involve changes in location of the body from one point to another (e.g., running, leaping, jumping, hopping, galloping, and
Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns
Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are the foundation upon which more complex sport specific skills are based, facilitating greater participation in physical activity (PA) and sport. 1 They are often classified into 3 categories: locomotor skills involving the movement of the body from 1 location
Rich D. Johnston
scored. Defensive skills involve the tackle contest, with offensive skills including catching, passing, and in some positions, kicking the ball. Previous research has highlighted that technical performance is linked to success in matches, with winning teams committing fewer technical errors in attack and
Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’ Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns
have been found to be related to greater participation in physical activity and sport ( Gallahue & Ozmun, 2006 ; Logan, Robinson, Wilson, & Lucas, 2011 ). They are often categorized into locomotor skills, involving the movement of the body from one location to another (e.g., running and jumping
Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir and Jacqueline D. Goodway
al., 2015 ; Stodden et al., 2008 ). FMS are considered the building blocks to more advanced movement patterns ( Seefeldt, 1980 ) and generally consist of locomotor skills and object control skills. Locomotor skills involve moving the body from one point in space to another (e.g., running, leaping, jumping