Obstacle crossing, such as stepping over a curb, becomes more challenging with natural aging and could lead to obstacle-related trips and falls. To reduce fall-risk, obstacle training programs using physical obstacles have been developed, but come with space and human resource constraints. These barriers could be removed by using a virtual obstacle crossing training program, but only if the learned gait characteristics transfer to a real environment. We examined whether virtual environment obstacle crossing behavior is transferred to crossing real environment obstacles. Forty participants (n = 20 younger adults and n = 20 older adults) completed two sessions of virtual environment obstacle crossing, which was preceded and followed by one session of real environment obstacle crossing. Participants learned to cross the virtual obstacle more safely and that change in behavior was transferred to the real environment via increased foot clearance and alterations in foot placement before and after the real environment obstacle. Further, while both age groups showed transfer to the real environment task, they differed on the limb in which their transfer effects applied. This suggests it is plausible to use virtual reality training to enhance gait characteristics in the context of obstacle avoidance, potentially leading to a novel way to reduce fall-risk.
Chanel T. LoJacono, Ryan P. MacPherson, Nikita A. Kuznetsov, Louisa D. Raisbeck, Scott E. Ross and Christopher K. Rhea
Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer
these interventions do not consistently reduce injury risk (see Sugimoto et al 10 for a review). This may be due, in part, to the lack of adequate knowledge on how to optimize interventions to maximize the potential for sport-relevant skill transfer. It also may indicate that the laboratory tasks do
Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs and Michael A. Hemphill
, 2011 ), no theory-driven, validated instruments have been published that align specifically with the model or focus on youth agency in the transfer process. In fact, we are aware of only one validated instrument in the field of SBYD that directly addresses transfer. The Life Skills Transfer Survey
Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer
antifragile athlete: a preliminary analysis of neuromuscular training effects on muscle activation dynamics . Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci . 2015 ; 19 ( 4 ): 489 – 510 . PubMed ID: 26375937 26375937 3. Myer GD , Stroube BW , DiCesare CA , et al . Augmented feedback supports skill transfer
Lindsay E. Kipp
A signature characteristic of positive youth development (PYD) programs is the opportunity to develop life skills, such as social, behavioral, and moral competencies, that can be generalized to domains beyond the immediate activity. Although context-specific instruments are available to assess developmental outcomes, a measure of life skills transfer would enable evaluation of PYD programs in successfully teaching skills that youth report using in other domains. The purpose of our studies was to develop and validate a measure of perceived life skills transfer, based on data collected with The First Tee, a physical activity-based PYD program.
In 3 studies, we conducted a series of steps to provide content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability for the life skills transfer survey (LSTS), a measure of perceived life skills transfer.
Study 1 provided content validity for the LSTS that included 8 life skills and 50 items. Study 2 revealed construct validity (structural validity) through a confirmatory factor analysis and convergent validity by correlating scores on the LSTS with scores on an assessment tool that measures a related construct. Study 3 offered additional construct validity by reassessing youth 1 year later and showing that scores during both time periods were invariant in factor pattern, loadings, and variances and covariances. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated internal consistency reliability of the LSTS.
Results from 3 studies provide evidence of content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability for the LSTS, which can be used in evaluation research with youth development programs.
Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright
Purpose: The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model was developed to foster responsibility and teach life skills that transfer to various settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation fidelity of a school-based TPSR program in physical education and other subject areas. Method: Systematic observation was used to assess implementation in two elementary schools. Participants were seven teachers and 170 students between 8 and 12 years old (87 girls and 83 boys). Results: Teachers’ adherence to the model was deemed moderate, with varied application of established responsibility-based teaching strategies. Teachers had notably lower scores related to promoting life skill transfer. However, the strategies teachers used to foster responsibility were significantly correlated with their students’ demonstration of responsible behaviors. Discussion/Conclusion: Results indicate TPSR may provide an effective framework for promoting responsibility across the school curriculum. Implications for research and strategies for promoting implementation fidelity are discussed.
Nili Steinberg, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Janet Karin and Oren Tirosh
Background: Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. Methods: A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14–19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) “relaxed” posture; (2) “ballet” posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. Results: A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p < .05), and static PB in the relaxed posture was significantly better than PB in all the other five conditions tested. Dynamic PB was significantly better while standing in ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p < .05). Conclusions: The practical implications derived from this study are that both male and female dancers should try to be relaxed in their postural muscles when practicing a ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.
Fernando Santos, Daniel Gould and Leisha Strachan
learner’s experiences of life skills transfer and highlighted the need to consider a set of contextual features (e.g., coach strategies, program design) that are likely to facilitate or undermine transfer. These guidelines emphasized the importance of helping youth sport coaches intentionally facilitate
Martin Camiré, Kelsey Kendellen, Scott Rathwell and Evelyne Felber Charbonneau
coaches’ perceived ability to (a) optimize coach-athlete relationships, (b) foster life skills development in sport, and (c) facilitate life skills transfer in areas extending beyond sport. Program Design The research team, comprised of one university professor and three graduate students specializing in
Fernando Santos, Leisha Strachan, Daniel Gould, Paulo Pereira and Cláudia Machado
appropriately about PLSD and life-skills transfer with both youth athletes and more-experienced athletes: “We try to read each situation. If a player needs to work on personal and social skills I will speak with him and try to provide guidance so he can improve” (TC8). PLSD Strategies Focused on More