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Motor Development: Far More Than Just the Development of Motor Skills

David I. Anderson

, health, and psychological functioning. They have expanded descriptions of how skills develop, highlighted the multimodal nature of perception and action, validated assessments, intervened to promote motor development in children with disease or disability, and translated research into practice. Despite

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Longitudinal Relationships Between Maturation, Technical Efficiency, and Performance in Age-Group Swimmers: Improving Swimmer Evaluation

Shaun Abbott, Goshi Yamauchi, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Castiglioni, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

consequently performance. 18 However, an abundant evidence base in Front-crawl swimming also highlights the importance of technical skill elements related to both propulsion and water resistance (or opposing drag forces). 19 Research describes ideal technique as the interaction between optimal body gliding

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The Development of Bilateral Skill Symmetry: Insights From Gaelic Football Players and Coaches

Karol Dillon, Paul Kinnerk, Ian Sherwin, and Philip E. Kearney

skill symmetry—the degree to which an individual is able to successfully perform with both sides of the body ( Stöckel & Weigelt, 2012 )—is popularly believed to be a key characteristic of high-level sports performers ( Moore, O’Dwyer, et al., 2017 ; Parrington & Ball, 2016 ). Despite this popular

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Repeated Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Before Training Changes Visual Search and Improves Decision-Making Response Time in Soccer Athletes

Leonardo S. Fortes, Maicon R. Albuquerque, Heloiana K.C. Faro, Dalton de Lima-Júnior, Maria E.C. Ferreira, and Sebastião S. Almeida

applied over the visual cortex improved motion perception in the visuomotor tracking task. Harris et al. ( 2019 ) found no effect of tDCS over the frontal, motor, or visual cortex on the performance of a self-paced visuomotor skill in amateur golfers. These scientific investigations analyzed the acute

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Ingesting a 12% Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage Before Each Half of a Soccer Match Simulation Facilitates Retention of Passing Performance and Improves High-Intensity Running Capacity in Academy Players

Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard, and Stuart D. R. Galloway

Soccer is characterized by prolonged intermittent activities involving multiple sprints, high-intensity actions, and technical motor skills. As a result, fatigue in soccer is a complex phenomenon underpinned by central and physiological mechanisms, and is most prominent during the latter stages of

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Strategic Understandings: An Investigation of Professional Academy Youth Soccer Coaches’ Interpretation, Knowledge, and Application of Game Strategies

Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski, and Shane Pill

, Larkins, & Williams, 2018 ). Reflecting this importance, demonstration of skills, such as reasoning, planning, strategizing, and reflecting about performance ( Tishman & Perkins, 1995 ), are seen as indicators of “understanding.” Notably, however, the process of learning such skills remains an aspect of

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An Integrated, Multifactorial Approach to Periodization for Optimal Performance in Individual and Team Sports

Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué, and Damian Farrow

of the 20th century, as physiologists started applying their skills to understand the biological mechanisms underpinning exercise and training adaptations, coaches and athletes began to recognize the importance of a more scientific approach to the training process. This approach initiated the

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How Baseball Players Prepare to Bat: Tactical Knowledge as a Mediator of Expert Performance in Baseball

Sue L. McPherson and Clare MacMahon

Our understanding of the role of tactical knowledge in baseball batting preparation is scarce, thereby limiting training guidelines. We examined the verbal reports of baseball players and nonplayers when told to view different edited video sequences of a half-inning of baseball competition under different task conditions: to prepare to bat (problem solve); recall as much information as possible (intentional recall); or prepare to bat, with an unexpected recall (incidental recall). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Expertise X Instruction conditions) on verbal report measures indicated that nonplayers used general strategies for recalling baseball events and lacked the tactical skills to use such information for their upcoming times at bat. In contrast, players used baseball-specific strategies to encode and retrieve pertinent game events from long-term memory (LTM) to develop tactics for their upcoming times at bat and to recall as much information as possible. Recommendations for training tactical skills are presented as some players exhibited defciencies in the LTM structures that mediate batting decisions.

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The Influence of Caffeine and Carbohydrate Coingestion on Simulated Soccer Performance

Nicholas Gant, Ajmol Ali, and Andrew Foskett

Carbohydrate and caffeine are known to independently improve certain aspects of athletic performance. However, less is understood about physiological and performance outcomes when these compounds are coingested in a rehydration and carbohydrate-replacement strategy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adding a moderate dose of caffeine to a carbohydrate solution during prolonged soccer activity. Fifteen male soccer players performed two 90-min intermittent shuttle-running trials. They ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CON) providing a total of 1.8 g/kg body mass (BM) of carbohydrate or a similar solution with added caffeine (CAF; 3.7 mg/kg BM). Solutions were ingested 1 hr before exercise and every 15 min during the protocol. Soccer passing skill and countermovement-jump height (CMJ) were quantified before exercise and regularly during exercise. Sprinting performance, heart rate, blood lactate concentration (La) and the subjective experiences of participants were measured routinely. Mean 15-m sprint time was faster during CAF (p = .04); over the final 15 min of exercise mean sprint times were CAF 2.48 ± 0.15 s vs. CON 2.59 ± 0.2 s. Explosive leg power (CMJ) was improved during CAF (52.9 ± 5.8 vs. CON 51.7 ± 5.7 cm, p = .03). Heart rate was elevated throughout CAF, and ratings of pleasure were significantly enhanced. There were no significant differences in passing skill, rating of perceived exertion, La, or body-mass losses between trials. The addition of caffeine to the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improved sprinting performance, countermovement jumping, and the subjective experiences of players. Caffeine appeared to offset the fatigue-induced decline in self-selected components of performance.

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Mental Fatigue Impairs Tackling Technique in Amateur Rugby Union Players

Demi Davidow, Mitchell Smith, Tayla Ross, Gwyneth Laura James, Lara Paul, Michael Lambert, Ben Jones, and Sharief Hendricks

The tackle is a physically and psychologically challenging contest of skill between 2 or more opposing players in collision-based sports such as rugby union, rugby league, rugby sevens, and American football. 1 – 3 The tackle contest typically starts when a defending player(s), known as the tackler