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David I. Anderson

, health, and psychological functioning. They have expanded descriptions of how skills develop, highlighted the multimodal nature of perception and action, validated assessments, intervened to promote motor development in children with disease or disability, and translated research into practice. Despite

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

Soccer is characterized by prolonged intermittent activities involving multiple sprints, high-intensity actions, and technical motor skills. As a result, fatigue in soccer is a complex phenomenon underpinned by central and physiological mechanisms, and is most prominent during the latter stages of

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

of the 20th century, as physiologists started applying their skills to understand the biological mechanisms underpinning exercise and training adaptations, coaches and athletes began to recognize the importance of a more scientific approach to the training process. This approach initiated the

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

Fast bowling is a specialized discipline within the game of cricket. Typically, fast bowlers form the majority of the “bowling attack” against the opposition team. Each fast bowler presents with varying skill sets and abilities. Some bowlers are renowned for their excellent bowling accuracy (eg

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Sue L. McPherson and Clare MacMahon

Our understanding of the role of tactical knowledge in baseball batting preparation is scarce, thereby limiting training guidelines. We examined the verbal reports of baseball players and nonplayers when told to view different edited video sequences of a half-inning of baseball competition under different task conditions: to prepare to bat (problem solve); recall as much information as possible (intentional recall); or prepare to bat, with an unexpected recall (incidental recall). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Expertise X Instruction conditions) on verbal report measures indicated that nonplayers used general strategies for recalling baseball events and lacked the tactical skills to use such information for their upcoming times at bat. In contrast, players used baseball-specific strategies to encode and retrieve pertinent game events from long-term memory (LTM) to develop tactics for their upcoming times at bat and to recall as much information as possible. Recommendations for training tactical skills are presented as some players exhibited defciencies in the LTM structures that mediate batting decisions.

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Nicholas Gant, Ajmol Ali and Andrew Foskett

Carbohydrate and caffeine are known to independently improve certain aspects of athletic performance. However, less is understood about physiological and performance outcomes when these compounds are coingested in a rehydration and carbohydrate-replacement strategy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adding a moderate dose of caffeine to a carbohydrate solution during prolonged soccer activity. Fifteen male soccer players performed two 90-min intermittent shuttle-running trials. They ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CON) providing a total of 1.8 g/kg body mass (BM) of carbohydrate or a similar solution with added caffeine (CAF; 3.7 mg/kg BM). Solutions were ingested 1 hr before exercise and every 15 min during the protocol. Soccer passing skill and countermovement-jump height (CMJ) were quantified before exercise and regularly during exercise. Sprinting performance, heart rate, blood lactate concentration (La) and the subjective experiences of participants were measured routinely. Mean 15-m sprint time was faster during CAF (p = .04); over the final 15 min of exercise mean sprint times were CAF 2.48 ± 0.15 s vs. CON 2.59 ± 0.2 s. Explosive leg power (CMJ) was improved during CAF (52.9 ± 5.8 vs. CON 51.7 ± 5.7 cm, p = .03). Heart rate was elevated throughout CAF, and ratings of pleasure were significantly enhanced. There were no significant differences in passing skill, rating of perceived exertion, La, or body-mass losses between trials. The addition of caffeine to the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improved sprinting performance, countermovement jumping, and the subjective experiences of players. Caffeine appeared to offset the fatigue-induced decline in self-selected components of performance.

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Wesley O’Brien, Michael J. Duncan, Orlagh Farmer and Diarmuid Lester

Physical literacy has been previously defined as having the motivation, confidence, physical competence, understanding, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to live a physically active life ( Whitehead, 2007 ). Movement competency, an integral component of physical literacy, has been shown to be an

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Cecilia Hoi Sze Chan, Amy Sau Ching Ha and Johan Yau Yin Ng

Elementary physical education (PE) serves as the foundation to develop fundamental movement skills (FMS) ( Holt-Hale & Persse, 2015 ). The acquisition of a solid base of FMS has multiple benefits for health ( Lubans, Morgan, Cliff, Barnett, & Okely, 2010 ). Actual motor competence is defined in

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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

relationships between motor development and physical activity engagement was central to the development of Stodden and colleagues’ ( 2008 ) conceptual model. The model illustrates a developmentally dynamic and reciprocal relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity; where fundamental motor

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Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard and Adam Hansell

Within the youth sport context, coaches take on many different roles and responsibilities. Youth coaches are, first and foremost, responsible for performance outcomes and teaching sport-specific physical, tactical, and technical skills ( International Council for Coaching Excellence, Association of