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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, and JoLynn Leisinger

skin temperature decreases are inappropriate. Some previous studies examining muscle temperature decreases with cryotherapy modalities have also measured skin temperature and have found no significant correlation between muscle and skin temperatures. 16 , 19 , 24 The use of constant external

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker, and Sarah Hurst

control group, on intramuscular and skin temperatures. We hypothesized that wetted ice would result in greater intramuscular and skin temperature cooling compared with gel pack. Methods Participants A total of 12 healthy participants (4 men and 8 women; age = 23.08 (1.93) y, height = 171.66 (9.47) cm

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Thomas W. Jones, Barry C. Shillabeer, and Marco Cardinale

be used to assess the effect of training and identify soft tissue and tendon injuries in athletes. 3 IRT has been shown to be valid for assessing skin temperature (Tsk) 4 and has been recommended for clinical use. 3 Previous work has suggested that IRT can be used to assess acute responses to

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Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada, Alejandro Pérez-Guarner, Alexis Gandia-Soriano, Fran Oficial-Casado, Carlos Galindo, Rosa M. Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Julia Kuligowski, Marco A. Gomes Barbosa, Máximo Vento, and Rosario Salvador Palmer

parameters are usually measured to determine internal load, all of them present one limitation or another, such as high interindividual and intraindividual differences, response variability, economical cost, or being too time consuming. 2 , 3 Skin temperature assessment has attracted attention in recent

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Matthew Rivera, Lindsey Eberman, Kenneth Games, and Cameron J. Powden

manual 9 and may play a role in the treatment of shoulder pathologies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of serial GT or SMR treatments on PM length, glenohumeral TAM, and skin temperature. We hypothesized that there would be greater increases in PM length and

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Justin H. Rigby and Shaylene B. Dye

A variety of cryotherapy systems may be used to cool tissues immediately after an injury. The purpose our study was to examine the effect of a 30-min application of various cryotherapy devices on skin temperatures and compression. A crossover-designed study performed in a university research laboratory was conducted. Each treatment condition was applied to the lateral ankle for 30 min on different days. HyperIce’s colder temperatures over the lateral ankle (p < .0001) would make it the treatment choice for immediate care of ankle lateral ligament injuries, but is limited due its size for larger injuries.

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Hailey N. Love, Kimberly A. Pritchard, Joseph M. Hart, and Susan A. Saliba


Alterations in skin sensations may be responsible for pain reduction provided by cryotherapy, but the exact physiological mechanism is unknown.


To investigate perceptions of skin sensations associated with different modes of cryotherapy administration and skin temperature at the point of perceived numbness.


Repeated measures.


30 healthy subjects (12 Male, 18 Female, Age = 21.1±1.9 years).


Crushed ice bag, ice massage, and cold water immersion.

Main Outcome Measures:

Perceptions of sensations during each mode of cryotherapy administration were derived from a Modified McGill Pain Questionnaire. Skin temperature was recorded when numbness was reported for each treatment.


Participants experienced sensations that included cold, tight, tingling, stinging, and numb. Ice massage sensations transitioned rapidly from cold to numb, whereas cold water immersion and ice bag treatments produced altered sensations for longer duration. Ice massage decreased skin temperature significantly more than the other two modes of cryotherapy administration.


Ice massage may be the best mode of cryotherapy administration for achievement of anaesthesia as rapidly as possible, whereas cold water immersion and ice bag application may be better for attainment of pain reduction associated with noxious stimulation of skin receptors.

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Steve H. Faulkner, Iris Broekhuijzen, Margherita Raccuglia, Maarten Hupperets, Simon G. Hodder, and George Havenith

weight recorded and were then instrumented with wireless temperature sensors (iButton, DS1922; Home Chip; Sunnyvale, CA) at 8 locations to allow for the calculation of mean skin temperature ( T ¯ sk ). 16 Heart rate was recorded continuously throughout the trials (RS800; Polar, Kempele, Finland). To

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Carl J. Petersen, Marc R. Portus, David B. Pyne, Brian T. Dawson, Matthew N. Cramer, and Aaron D. Kellett

Cricketers are often required to play in hot/humid environments with little time for heat adaptation.


We examined the effect of a short 4-d hot/humid acclimation program on classical physiological indicators of heat acclimation.


Male club cricketers were randomly assigned into heat acclimation (ACC, n = 6) or control (CON, n = 6) groups, and 30 min treadmill trials (10 km/h, approx. 30 ± 1.0°C, approx. 65 ± 6% RH) were conducted at baseline and postacclimation. The ACC group completed four high intensity (30–45 min) acclimation sessions on consecutive days at approx. 30°C and approx. 60% RH using a cycle ergometer. The CON group completed matched cycle training in moderate conditions (approx. 20°C, approx. 60% RH). Physiological measures during each treadmill trial included heart rate; core and skin temperatures; sweat Na+, K+ and Cl– electrolyte concentrations; and sweat rate.


After the 4-d intervention, the ACC group had a moderate decrease of -11 (3 to -24 beats/min; mean and 90% CI) in the 30 min heart rate, and moderate to large reductions in electrolyte concentrations: Na+ -18% (–4 to -31%), K+ -15% (0 to -27%), Cl– -22% (-9 to -33%). Both ACC and CON groups had only trivial changes in core and skin temperatures and sweat rate. After the intervention, both groups perceived they were more comfortable exercising in the heat. The 4-d heat intervention had no detrimental effect on performance.


Four 30–45 min high intensity cycle sessions in hot/humid conditions elicited partial heat acclimation. For full heat acclimation a more intensive and extensive (and modality-specific) acclimation intervention is needed for cricket players.

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Lisa S. Jutte and Dylan J. Paracka

cryotherapy treatment, that is, ice versus cold water, 3 and the length 4 of the cryotherapy application influences tissue temperature decreases. Compression is known to enhance cooling. 5 Merrick et al 6 reported thigh skin temperature decreasing to 4.94°C (0.68°C) during a single 30-minute ice bag