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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

not previously been explored. Anthropometry is the scientific procedure of acquiring surface anatomical dimensional measurements, including skinfolds, and is an easily accessible, inexpensive, mobile, and robust method of body composition assessment used in rugby union ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Duthie

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Adam J. Zemski, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

application of absolute skinfold measurement is recommended to assess changes in body composition ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Reilly et al., 2009 ), whilst the use of equations to estimate body fat percent (BF%) is advocated only if being applied to the population from which it was derived ( Reilly et al., 2009

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Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain and Jodee Schaben

Background:

Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.

Methods:

This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.

Results:

ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.

Conclusions:

Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.

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Vatan Kavak

Our aim in this study was to determine the body fat percentage of teenagers in Diyarbakir, a city in southeast Turkey. The study included 1118 children between the ages of 10 to 15. Basic anthropometric measurements including body-mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness were taken. The skinfold thickness were measured with a Lange skinfold caliper. Fat mass percentage (FM %) was predicted by using skinfold thickness equations. Differences between boys and girls across age groups for weight, height, and BMI were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). With respect to skinfold thickness in the 10-y-old group, the thickness at triceps and subscapular sites in girls was higher than those of boys. In the 12-y-old group, the thickness was found to be higher in girls than boys at the triceps, biceps, and subscapular sites. We found that an increase in skinfold thickness in the 13, 14, and 15-y-old groups was significantly higher among girls than boys and tended to increase with age. However, such a tendency was not shown in boys. This tendency was found only at the triceps site in 10, 12, and 13-y-old boys. In addition, the skinfold thickness at the biceps site was found to be greater in the 14-y-old boys. The body fat mass percent in girls, especially those older than age 13, was also increased.

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Kirk J. Cureton, Ted A. Baumgartner and Beth G. McManis

The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the relation of 1-mile run/walk time (MRWT) to skinfold thickness measures in a national probability sample of students 8 to 18 years of age (NCYFS I and II, n = 11,123) and (b) to evaluate the impact of adjusting MRWT scores for the effect of skinfold thickness on the classification of scores using percentile ranks and criterion referenced standards (CRS). MRWT was significantly related to the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds in all age-gender groups. In 12-year-olds, MRWT scores adjusted for sum of skinfolds by regression analysis resulted in individual percentile ranks that differed by more than 10 from percentile ranks of unadjusted scores in 29% of girls and 39% of boys, and altered classifications on the Fitnessgram and AAHPERD mile run/walk time CRS in 11-14% of boys and girls. It is concluded that the relation between MRWT and skinfold thickness is strong enough, and the impact of adjusting MRWT scores for skinfold thickness sufficient, to justify using adjusted scores for classification of cardiorespiratory capacity as part of the assessment of health related physical fitness in youth. Additional research is needed to cross-validate the equations developed in this study.

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Vivian H. Heyward

This paper provides an overview of practical methods for assessing body composition of children, adults, and older adults. Three methods commonly used in field and clinical settings are skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometry. For each method, standardized testing procedures, sources of measurement error, recommendations for technicians, and selected prediction equations for each age category are presented. The skinfold method is appropriate for estimating body fat of children (6–17 years) and body density of adults (18–60 years) from diverse ethnic groups. Likewise, bioimpedance is well suited tor estimating the fat-free mass of children (10-19 years) as well as American Indian, black, Hispanic, and white adults. Anthropometric prediction equations that use a combination of circumferences and bony diameters are recommended for older adults (up to 79 years of age), as well as obese men and women.

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Bronwen Lundy, Helen O’Connor, Fiona Pelly and Ian Caterson

This study aimed to describe the physique characteristics and competition nutrient intake of professional Rugby League players and to assess use of a statistical technique for evaluating validity of dietary reporting. Players (n = 74) were endomorphic mesomorphs and had a mean weight, height, and BMI of 93.4 ± 10.9 kg, 179.9 ± 7.3 cm, and 28.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2 respectively. Mean sum of eight skinfolds was 78.9 ± 2.2 mm (12.4 ± 2.9% fat). Players (n = 34) reported a mean daily energy intake of 17,708 ± 3,688 kJ (carbohydrate 51%, protein 18%, fat 25%, alcohol 4%) with 6 and 2.0 g · kg−1 · d−1 from carbohydrate and protein respectively. Micronutrient intake was adequate but alcohol consumption was high relative to health standards. The dietary records provided a plausible estimate of energy intake however further research is required to evaluate statistical techniques for assessing dietary validity in athlete groups.

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Jace A. Delaney, Heidi R. Thornton, Tannath J. Scott, David A. Ballard, Grant M. Duthie, Lisa G. Wood and Ben J. Dascombe

High levels of lean mass are important in collision-based sports for the development of strength and power, which may also assist during contact situations. While skinfold-based measures have been shown to be appropriate for cross-sectional assessments of body composition, their utility in tracking changes in lean mass is less clear.

Purpose:

To determine the most effective method of quantifying changes in lean mass in rugby league athletes.

Methods:

Body composition of 21 professional rugby league players was assessed on 2 or 3 occasions separated by ≥6 wk, including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), leanmass index (LMI), and a skinfold-based prediction equation (SkF). Dual-X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of fat-free mass (FFM). Correlation coefficients (r) and standard errors of the estimate (SEE) were used as measures of validity for the estimates.

Results:

All 3 practical estimates exhibited strong validity for cross-sectional assessments of FFM (r > .9, P < .001). The correlation between change scores was stronger for the LMI (r = .69, SEE 1.3 kg) and the SkF method (r = .66, SEE = 1.4 kg) than for BIA (r = .50, SEE = 1.6 kg).

Conclusions:

The LMI is probably as accurate in predicting changes in FFM as SkF and very likely to be more appropriate than BIA. The LMI offers an adequate, practical alternative for assessing in FFM among rugby league athletes.

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Georgianna Tuuri and Mark Loftin

Hydrodensitometry (HD), skinfold thickness measurements (SK), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were compared for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in youth competitive swimmers. Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression of the differences between methods compared to method means. Limits of agreement between the three techniques were large. Hydrodensitometry and SK demonstrated no difference in precision. Variance was observed between DXA and the other two techniques, with DXA demonstrating a wider distribution of measurement scores than HD or SK. These methods do not appear to be interchangeable when measuring percent body fat in youth swimmers.

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Sidnei Jorge Fonseca-Junior, Aldair J. Oliveira, Luiz Lannes Loureiro and Anna Paola Trindade Pierucci

Purpose:

Body composition of adolescent athletes is often evaluated scientifically and in sports by using reference equations developed from nonathlete adolescent populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the validity of predictive equations based on skinfold measurements, as compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to estimate body fat in adolescent modern pentathlon athletes.

Methods:

51 athletes, 27 male (mean age = 15.1 years; standard deviation, SD = 1.5 years) and 24 female (mean age = 14.2 years; SD = 2.5 years), were assessed using DXA, anthropometric parameters, sports practice anamnesis, and pubertal stages. Agreement between methods was tested with boxplots of mean comparisons using Student’s t test (p < .05), and Bland-Altman plots.

Results:

The body density equations of Durnin & Rahaman (1967) and Durnin & Womersley (1974) showed better agreement with DXA than the other predictive equations, for both females (difference between means=-2.03; 2SD = 8.44) and males (difference between means = 0.98; 2SD = 7.30). There were no mean differences between these equations and the reference method (DXA; p > .05), but they did display high variability (2SD).

Conclusion:

The high variability among results indicated imprecision. Predictive skinfold equations developed for nonathlete adolescents do not offer good validity for modern adolescent pentathlon athletes, and should be avoided.