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Sean P. Wall, Carl G. Mattacola, C. Buz Swanik and Susan Levenstein


Overreaching can be beneficial, but there is a risk of overtraining.


To investigate the difference in sleep efficiency between overreached and nonover-reached swimmers.


Repeated-measures, between-subjects. Swimmers were determined to be overreaching if 2 or more of their consecutive weekly swim times increased by 5% or more from baseline.


9 competitive high school and university sprinter swimmers.


24-h wrist actigraph.

Main Outcome Measure:

Sleep efficiency as measured by the actigraph.


There was a significant difference in sleep efficiency on night 1 between the overreached and nonoverreached swimmers (P = .008), as well as in their times after averaging over all 5 trials and adjusting for baseline (P = .016). By the fourth swim trial, the overreached swimmers had significantly slower swim times than those of the nonoverreached swimmers (P = .001).


Sleep efficiency shows potential as an objective, noninvasive predictor and monitor of overreaching in swimmers.

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Michele Lastella, Gregory D. Roach, Grace E. Vincent, Aaron T. Scanlan, Shona L. Halson and Charli Sargent

high training volumes reduce sleep duration and sleep efficiency, 18 and rest days significantly delay bed and wake-up times and increase sleep duration. 13 Given that basketball likely requires different training schedules and imposes varied demands on adolescent athletes compared with individual

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

Actiware software (Philips Respironics). The analyzed variables were time awake, sleep duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep efficiency, and sleep latency. Record of Musculoskeletal Injuries A specific database for recording injury was created and completed in conjunction with the medical team of

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie and Ben J. Dascombe

sleep efficiency (−5.4%), increased wake bouts (+7), and increased time spent moving (5%) compared with baseline. 7 Specific to team sports, daily variations in session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) were correlated with reductions in sleep duration when load increased ( r  = −.37), and sleep

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

quality and actual sleep efficiency was not as strong. 20 Thus, it is clear that the relationship between sleep and hormones in professional sporting environments remains unclear. With a cohort of professional Rugby union players, the aims of this project were (1) to examine sleep quality and quantity

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

, min The period of time between bedtime and sleep-onset time Sleep efficiency, % The percentage of time in bed that was spent asleep Wake after sleep onset, min The amount of time spent awake after sleep has been initiated Total sleep time, % The percentage of sleep obtained during a sleep period

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

 al ( 39 ) reported longer sleep duration but lowered sleep efficiency and increased intraindividual night-to-night variability of sleep in young male soccer players (n = 12) compared with nonathlete controls. The young soccer players had training sessions starting at 10:30 AM, but morning training

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

, sleep duration (amount of time spent asleep), sleep onset latency (amount of time between bedtime and sleep onset), number of wake bouts, and sleep efficiency (sleep duration expressed as a percentage of time in bed) were calculated following the rest and night game. Neuroendocrine Assessment Salivary

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Benita J. Lalor, Shona L. Halson, Jacqueline Tran, Justin G. Kemp and Stuart J. Cormack

), number of wake bouts, and sleep efficiency (%). The sleep diary was used by participants to record sleep location, bedtime (hh:mm), and wake-up time (hh:mm). Players completed a self-reported rating of sleep quality, measured on a Likert point scale of 1 to 10 (1 = poor quality, 10 = high quality

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Natashia Swalve, Brianna Harfmann, John Mitrzyk and Alexander H. K. Montoye

time and calculations of sleep efficiency ( de Zambotti, Baker, & Colrain, 2015 ; de Zambotti, Claudatos, Inkelis, Colrain, & Baker, 2015 ; Ferguson, Rowlands, Olds, & Maher, 2015 ; Meltzer, Hiruma, Avis, Montgomery-Downs, & Valentin, 2015 ; Montgomery-Downs et al., 2012 ; Toon et al., 2016 ; but