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Sally P. Waterworth, Connor C. Spencer, Aaron L. Porter and James P. Morton

adaptations ( Impey et al., 2018 ). Although there are multiple research designs used to practically achieve train-low conditions (i.e., twice per day training protocols, fasted training, and/or withholding CHO in the recovery period from acute exercise), the “sleep-low, train-low” model has been emerged as a

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

approach CHO periodization ( Jeukendrup, 2017 ). One strategy is the “sleep-low” sequence ( Burke et al., 2018 ), which involves commencing a high-intensity training (HIT) session in the evening with high CHO availability, before restricting the CHO intake at the subsequent meal and overnight. This

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

, during, post CHO pre, during, post CHO pre, during, post CHO pre, during, post CHO pre, during, post PCHO (n = 10) Fasted training; CHO post Fasted training + low glycogen (train low#); CHO post CHO pre, during, post Fasted training; CHO post CHO pre + during; Nil CHO post (“sleep low”#) CHO pre, during

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

, respectively) and substrate utilization (e.g., PDK4, HK, CS, β-HAD). Akerstrom et al. ( 2006 ); De Bock et al. ( 2008 ); Van Proeyen et al. ( 2011 ) Recovery low/sleep low strategy • Both muscle and liver glycogen are reduced during an evening training session. CHO intake is then withheld in recovery or

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

 al., 2017 ). • Many studies of ketone supplementation report gastrointestinal side-effects ranging from mild to severe; these can be performance impairing ( Leckey et al., 2018 ). Recover low/sleep low strategy • Deliberate restriction of CHO in meals after an exercise session to delay restoration of muscle

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

training. 9 This may be of advantage to endurance athletes if correctly integrated into a periodized training program 10 ; however, other methods of reducing carbohydrate availability (ie, “sleep low” and “train low” paradigms) have resulted in reduced self-selected intensity, which might attenuate the

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

Investigative Medicine, 15, 406 – 419 . PubMed ID: 1458713 Marquet , L.A. , Brisswalter , J. , Louis , J. , Tiollier , E. , Burke , L.M. , Hawley , J.A. , & Hausswirth , C. ( 2016 ). Enhanced endurance performance by periodization of carbohydrate intake: “Sleep Low” strategy . Medicine

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

, subjects also consumed CHOs (0.6 g/kg BM) at 30 min and 1 hr postexercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained immediately pre-, immediately post-, and 1.5 hr postexercise. This experimental protocol represents an amalgamation of train-low paradigms as subjects effectively performed sleep low on the evening of

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

) could be implemented in future research studies involving master athletes. Finally, emerging nutritional manipulations designed to stimulate the adaptation to training, such as sleep low/train low strategies (where carbohydrate intake is voluntarily withheld or reduced at certain periods of training

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

sequencing of (1) a “train high” high-quality training session, (2) overnight or within-day CHO restriction (sleep low), and (3) a moderate-intensity workout undertaken without CHO intake and, in the case of a morning session, after an overnight fast (train low). Indeed, superior training adaptation and