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Justin M. Stanek, Jake Parish, Richard Rainville, and Jeffrey G. Williams

Key Points ▸ Tibial rotation is important for normal knee and ankle function. ▸ Rotational motion at the tibia is rarely quantified in the clinical environment. ▸ Tibial rotation can be quickly and reliably assessed using a smartphone. ▸ Consistency in methodology and device are imperative for

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Neng Wan, Ming Wen, Jessie X. Fan, O. Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Sara McCormick, Kirsten Elliott, and Emily Nicolosi

population groups in the United States such as youth, white adults, and African American adults. 11 , 14 – 16 However, little attention has been paid to PIs despite their higher risk of PA-related health problems. In recent years, mobile technologies, especially smartphones, have emerged as a new and

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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker, and Lindsay Warren

goniometry, is performed in a similar manner to goniometry, but the inclinometer is aligned with the distal limb to measure motion. 2 , 4 , 5 The ease and availability of digital inclinometers, specifically those created as smartphone applications, have anecdotally increased the use of inclinometry for ROM

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Jarle Stålesen, Thomas Westergren, Bjørge Herman Hansen, and Sveinung Berntsen

-grade accelerometers are expensive and require training of research staff, and outcomes are to an extent dependent on data-reduction strategies. 7 Therefore, the feasibility of using research-grade motion sensors with embedded accelerometers is limited. The latest smartphones include several motion-detecting sensors

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Merrill D. Funk, Cindy L. Salazar, Miriam Martinez, Jesus Gonzalez, Perla Leyva, David Bassett Jr., and Murat Karabulut

goals. Use of activity tracking devices has increased exponentially in recent years and the research analyzing the accuracy of these devices has followed ( Bort-Roig, Gilson, Puig-Ribera, Contreras, & Trost, 2014 ; Evenson, Goto, & Furberg, 2015 ). The number of Americans using smartphones reached 88

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Reabias de A. Pereira, José Luiz de B. Alves, João Henrique da C. Silva, Matheus da S. Costa, and Alexandre S. Silva

of these apps, only 2 have been scientifically validated to date (ithlete and HRV4Training). 5 , 6 The rMSSD [root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals] index is available in these apps. Meanwhile, the smartphone app HRV Expert by CardioMood (CardioMood, Moscow, Russia

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Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding, and Paul B. Laursen

wishing to use HRV in the field. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a technological advancement that may allow HRV to be measured simply via a smartphone device. PPG is measured via reflection through the illumination of the skin using a light-emitting diode (LED; eg, the smartphone’s flash) and through

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Paul A. Ullucci, Frank Tudini, and Matthew F. Moran

currently allow smartphone users to assess 3-dimensional movements in real time using various applications. This technology has been found to be both reliable and valid when measuring range of motion in multiple joints, including cardinal plane range of motion of the cervical spine. 9 , 10 There is, however

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Yong Yang, Sheng Li, Kai Zhang, Xiaoling Xiang, Zhigang Li, SangNam Ahn, and James Murphy

Smartphones, as a promising tool, are increasingly applied to healthcare ( Habib et al., 2014 ; Lee, 2016 ) to improve healthy behaviors ( Dennison, Morrison, Conway, & Yardley, 2013 ; King et al., 2013 ) and to promote mental health ( Hilty, Chan, Hwang, Wong, & Bauer, 2017 ). However, our

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Enda Whyte, Tiarnán Ó Doinn, Miriam Downey, and Siobhán O’Connor

techniques are reliable and practical for a range of clinicians. Accelerometer-based smartphone goniometric applications (SGA) have become an increasingly popular and valid goniometric tool. 3 Although the intratester reliability of SGA of the hip range of motion (ROM) has been reported in one study only, 3