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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

goniometry, is performed in a similar manner to goniometry, but the inclinometer is aligned with the distal limb to measure motion. 2 , 4 , 5 The ease and availability of digital inclinometers, specifically those created as smartphone applications, have anecdotally increased the use of inclinometry for ROM

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Jarle Stålesen, Thomas Westergren, Bjørge Herman Hansen and Sveinung Berntsen

-grade accelerometers are expensive and require training of research staff, and outcomes are to an extent dependent on data-reduction strategies. 7 Therefore, the feasibility of using research-grade motion sensors with embedded accelerometers is limited. The latest smartphones include several motion-detecting sensors

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Merrill D. Funk, Cindy L. Salazar, Miriam Martinez, Jesus Gonzalez, Perla Leyva, David Bassett Jr. and Murat Karabulut

goals. Use of activity tracking devices has increased exponentially in recent years and the research analyzing the accuracy of these devices has followed ( Bort-Roig, Gilson, Puig-Ribera, Contreras, & Trost, 2014 ; Evenson, Goto, & Furberg, 2015 ). The number of Americans using smartphones reached 88

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Reabias de A. Pereira, José Luiz de B. Alves, João Henrique da C. Silva, Matheus da S. Costa and Alexandre S. Silva

of these apps, only 2 have been scientifically validated to date (ithlete and HRV4Training). 5 , 6 The rMSSD [root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals] index is available in these apps. Meanwhile, the smartphone app HRV Expert by CardioMood (CardioMood, Moscow, Russia

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Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding and Paul B. Laursen

wishing to use HRV in the field. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a technological advancement that may allow HRV to be measured simply via a smartphone device. PPG is measured via reflection through the illumination of the skin using a light-emitting diode (LED; eg, the smartphone’s flash) and through

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Paul A. Ullucci, Frank Tudini and Matthew F. Moran

currently allow smartphone users to assess 3-dimensional movements in real time using various applications. This technology has been found to be both reliable and valid when measuring range of motion in multiple joints, including cardinal plane range of motion of the cervical spine. 9 , 10 There is, however

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Yong Yang, Sheng Li, Kai Zhang, Xiaoling Xiang, Zhigang Li, SangNam Ahn and James Murphy

Smartphones, as a promising tool, are increasingly applied to healthcare ( Habib et al., 2014 ; Lee, 2016 ) to improve healthy behaviors ( Dennison, Morrison, Conway, & Yardley, 2013 ; King et al., 2013 ) and to promote mental health ( Hilty, Chan, Hwang, Wong, & Bauer, 2017 ). However, our

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Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan

-based test that requires minimal equipment and training to administer would be an ideal measurement tool. We have developed a simple and more accessible alternative testing method, named the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Nordic break-point test, which utilizes a smartphone application to measure

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Christanie Monreal, Lindsay Luinstra, Lindsay Larkins and James May

or chronic neck pain–related conditions. 1 These instruments can sometimes be cumbersome and expensive. Interestingly, clinicians are now using smartphone applications, colloquially known as “apps,” as measurement tools in the clinical setting. 2 Smartphones are often equipped with an accelerometer

Open access

Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel

cell phone, 47% of which are smartphones ( Pew Research Center, 2017 ). The trends are similar in Europe, where 82% use the Internet, including 57% of those in the 55–74 age group ( Eurostat, 2016 ). Cell phone ownership in Europe among older adults has been reported at 86% ( Eurostat, 2016 ). Although