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Mark W. Bruner, Jeremie M. Carreau, Kathleen S. Wilson and Michael Penney

The purpose of this study was to investigate youth athletes’ perceptions of group norms for competition, practice, and social setting contexts in relation to personal and social factors. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of the personal and situation factors on perceptions of group norms. Participants included 424 athletes from 35 high school sport teams who completed a survey assessing team norms in competition, practice, and social settings. Multilevel analysis results revealed differences in group norms by gender as well as gender by team tenure and gender by sport type interactions. Female teams held higher perceptions of norms for competition, practice, and social settings than male teams. Interactions between gender and team tenure and gender and sport type revealed significant differences in practice norms. No differences were found in norms by group size. The findings suggest that examining the characteristics of the team members (i.e., gender, team tenure) and team (i.e., type of sport) may enhance our understanding of group norms in a youth sport setting.

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Martin Sharp and David Collins

A growing body of literature associates anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) with psychological and behavioral disturbance. Studies report marked increases in aggression, and authors have suggested a causal relationship with the pharmacological properties of AS. There are, however, contradictions, methodological shortcomings, and variability within the literature that indicate a need to reevaluate the interpretation of these findings. After considering limitations in the pharmacological-oriented approach when compared to wider theory, a previously unconsidered social-psychological literature base regarding this problem is examined. The paper explores the role of social mediation in the relationship between AS use and aggression, demonstrating how psychosocial factors may bring about the aggressive behavior. Although these alternatives aim to place the nature of effects firmly back in the field of psychological explanation, it is proposed that the true nature of the effects will only become evident by adopting a complex biopsychosocial approach to the study of this problem.

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Katie E. Cherry, Jennifer Silva Brown, Sangkyu Kim and S. Michal Jazwinski

Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21–44 years), middle-aged (45–64 years), older (65–84 years), and oldest-old adults (85–101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with selfreported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain important determinants of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed.

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Sara Wilcox, Cheryl Der Ananian, Patricia A. Sharpe, Jennifer Robbins and Theresa Brady

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is important for arthritis self-management. A better understanding of the PA correlates in persons with arthritis will help inform interventions.

Methods:

Computer searches were conducted on PubMed, PsychInfo, Current Contents, and Cinahl databases. Reference lists of extracted articles were also searched. Thirty-six studies published between 1976 and February 2004 met inclusion criteria.

Results:

PA correlates are presented for sociodemographic, psychological, health-related, social, and environmental categories. Self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers, mental well-being, prior PA, and pain received the most consistent support as PA correlates, whereas sociodemographic, social, and environmental variables were the least studied. Too few studies were conducted to allow comparisons across arthritis type or study design.

Conclusions:

We recommend that additional qualitative research be conducted to understand factors influencing PA in persons with arthritis. Prospective studies, particularly in the context of a PA program or intervention, would also be useful to better understand how barriers and enablers change over time.

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Saowaphan Churangsarit and Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

Background:

Transportation physical activity (TPA) and recreational physical activity (RPA) in an urban area can be sources of physical activity (PA) in addition to working. This study was conducted in Hat Yai City Municipality, the fourth most populous city in Thailand, to describe the magnitude of these physical activities and identify their associated factors.

Methods:

369 adults were selected from a random sampling of registered households. Based on the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), subjects were interviewed on their modes of TPA and RPA during the past week. Hurdle regression was used to examine predictors for having PA separately from predictor of intensity of PA among the active. Metabolic equivalent (MET) of TPA and RPA were computed.

Results:

Prevalence of not having TPA and RPA were 71.3% and 45.8%, respectively. TPA and RPA contributed 1.5% and 9.2% of total PA. Active commuters were more common in females 40 or more years old, less sedentary persons, and those living near shopping places. Persons having RPA were more likely to be less sedentary, whereas the intensity of RPA was higher among single persons and males.

Conclusion:

TPA and RPA in this study area were uncommon. Further strategies are needed to improve the situation, especially among sedentary persons.

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Pierre Lepage, Gordon A. Bloom and William R. Falcão

theme contained two or three themes. More specifically, Learning Opportunities included the structured and unstructured learning themes, whereas the overarching theme Factors Affecting Learning encompassed personal , environmental , and social factors . The descriptions of the themes will be

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Sharon R. Phillips, Risto Marttinen, Kevin Mercier and Anne Gibbone

: (a) repetitive and boring, (b) an overemphasis on competition, and (c) fitness testing activities—what’s the purpose and why am I on display. The second theme was titled social factors impact attitude: sweating and changing. The third theme was titled PE assumptions, the easy “A.” It included two

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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

features (e.g., intensity, location, type) but did not examine leader or social factors ( Hong, Hughes, & Prohaska, 2008 ). A recent mixed-methods review investigated factors associated with adherence to community-based group PA among older people in programs of 6 months’ duration or longer, however the

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Jordana Salma, Allyson Jones, Savera Aziz Ali, Bukola Salami and Shelby Yamamoto

that highlight Muslim older immigrants’ perspectives on physical activity: (a) values and approaches to staying active; (b) health factors: pain and health limitations; (c) social factors: culture, religion, and belonging; and (d) environmental factors: safety and accessibility. Table 2 Descriptive

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Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Steven Rynne, Isabel Maria Ribeiro Mesquita and Juarez Vieira do Nascimento

Previous research has suggested a shift from instructor-centred to learner-centred approaches in an attempt to improve coach education programs. To implement such crucial change it is essential to master the ‘new language’ and better understand educational contexts. The purposes of this article are to (a) highlight new social factors indicating an urgent need to change, (b) present a learner-centred framework based on the work of a recognized group of researchers (i.e., Blumberg, Cullen, Harris, and Weimer), and (c) analyse the learner-centeredness of a Bachelor in Physical Education program, especially with respect to its sport performance area. Based on the social factors explored throughout the text and the learner centred principles, results showed inconsistencies between the conceptual orientations mentioned in the ‘official documents’ and the teaching processes used in the Bachelor program. Recommendations for higher education leaders and instructors are explored.