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Timothy LaVigne, Betsy Hoza, Alan L. Smith, Erin K. Shoulberg and William Bukowski

We examined the relation between physical fitness and psychological well-being in children ages 10–14 years (N = 222), and the potential moderation of this relation by sex. Participants completed a physical fitness assessment comprised of seven tasks and a diverse set of self-report well-being measures assessing depressive symptoms, loneliness, and competence. Peers reported on social status and teachers rated adaptive functioning, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Multiple regression analyses indicated a significant association between physical fitness and psychological well-being for both boys and girls. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower levels of peer dyadic loneliness and fewer depressive symptoms; greater cognitive, social, and athletic competence; greater feelings of self-worth; and better teacher reports of adaptive functioning. An interaction between internalizing and sex indicated a significant and negative association between physical fitness and internalizing symptoms for males only. No other moderation effects by sex were observed. Results suggest that physical fitness is associated with a range of well-being indicators for both boys and girls in this age group.

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David Geard, Amanda L. Rebar, Peter Reaburn and Rylee A. Dionigi

the physical, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning domains ( Bowling, 2007 ; Cosco et al., 2014b ; Depp & Jeste, 2006 ; Peel et al., 2004 ; Phelan et al., 2004 ). Indeed, both original research ( Cosco, Stephan, & Brayne, 2014 ; von Faber et al., 2001 ) and review material ( Cheng

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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi

athletes’ high physical and physiological functioning ( Cooper et al., 2007 ; Hawkins et al., 2003 ; Louis et al., 2012 ), yet it does not consider the psychological, cognitive, and social functioning domains. However, research shows that generalized physical activity, structured exercise ( Bertera, 2003

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Kenneth C. Lam and Jessica G. Markbreiter

 = 86.7 [13.6], NO-HIS = 92.2 [8.2]); school functioning (HIS = 89.3 [12.4], NO-HIS = 94.3 [8.9]); and social functioning (HIS = 80.6 [14.7], NO-HIS = 86.8 [12.2]) scores (Table  2 ). There was no main effect of injury history reported for the PedsQL emotional functioning subscale (HIS = 85.7 [17.7], NO

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Ashley N. Marshall, Alison R. Snyder Valier, Aubrey Yanda and Kenneth C. Lam

general musculoskeletal 31 , 34 injuries are associated with lower HRQOL related to physical, emotional, mental, and social functioning. Findings in military cadets, 27 college athletes, 32 and adolescent athletes 33 suggest that individuals with previous history of knee injuries report deficits in

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Bruce H. Miles

Competitive opportunities for handicapped or disabled athletes are burgeoning. Different populations have different capabilities. Moderately (MO-MR) and mildly mentally retarded (MI-MR) athletes have unique abilities, and many physical educators, teachers, and volunteers spend countless hours preparing individuals and teams for tournaments and competitions. Two models are presented to assist in assessing MO-MR and MI-MR athletes’ abilities and levels of social functioning. Additionally a hierarchy of motor performance environments is presented. Discussion entails proper placement of athletes in a motor performance environment after ability and social functioning assessments have been completed.

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Rachel E. Blacklock, Ryan E. Rhodes and Shane G. Brown

Background:

The current physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) literature warrants further investigation with general population samples. The exploratory-focused purpose of this study was to compare total PA-HRQoL and walking-HRQoL relations, include a measure of general happiness, and to evaluate potential activity-HRQoL demographic moderators.

Methods:

A random sample of 351 adults completed an adapted Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire, the SF-36, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.

Results:

Partial correlations revealed small-to-moderate associations between walking/total PA and general health, vitality, and social functioning after controlling for key demographics (P < 0.05). A dependent t-test determined walking and PA as equally related to vitality and social functioning. Multiple regression revealed annual income as a moderator of the total PA/walking-social functioning relationship [F(3,315) = 9.71 and F(3,316) = 12.03, P < 0.01, respectively].

Conclusions:

HRQoL may be considered with walking interventions and annual income. The contribution of PA to overall happiness appears to be minor.

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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Anthony Papathomas, Jonathan Foster, Eleanor Quested and Nikos Ntoumanis

We explored perceptions of social dance as a possible intervention to improve cognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaints. A total of 30 participants (19 females; mean age = 72.6 years; SD = 8.2) took part in the study. This included 21 participants who had self-reported subjective memory complaints and nine spouses who noticed spousal memory loss. Semistructured interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Three main themes were constructed: (a) dance seen as a means of promoting social interaction; (b) chronic illness as a barrier and facilitator to participation; and (c) social dance representing nostalgic connections to the past. Overall, the participants were positive about the potential attractiveness of social dance to improve cognitive and social functioning and other aspects of health. In future research, it is important to examine the feasibility of a social dance intervention among older adults with subjective memory complaints.

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Minyoung Lee, Min Joo Kim, Dongwon Suh, Jungjin Kim, Eunkyoung Jo and BumChul Yoon

Little is known about the effectiveness of self-determination theory (SDT), a representative motivational theory, on exercise domain in older adults. This feasibility study used quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of a 13-month group exercise program applying SDT-based motivational strategies on exercise adherence, physical fitness, and quality of life, and to explore factors affecting exercise adherence in South Korean older adults (N = 18). Exercise attendance rate was high (82.52%). There were significant differences in aerobic endurance (p < .001), lower body strength (p < .05), dynamic balance (p < .001), and perceived social functioning (p < .05) at 13 months compared with baseline. Factors affecting exercise adherence were related to the SDT-based motivational strategies. These results support the importance of health professionals applying SDT-based motivational strategies to exercise programs to help facilitate motivation for participation and to promote physical fitness and quality of life in older adults.

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Shilpa Dogra, Ban Al-Sahab, James Manson and Hala Tamim

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.