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Kevin S. Spink and Kayla Fesser

intention to intervene with teammates becomes important. This formed the main purpose of the current study. Given that a sport team operates in a social environment, examining different sources of social influence would be a good place to start looking for ways to influence player’s intentions to intervene

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Albert V. Carron, Heather A. Hausenblas and Diane Mack

Using meta-analysis, the impact of a number of manifestations of social influence (important others, family, class leaders, coexercisers, social cohesion, and task cohesion) on exercise behaviors (adherence and compliance), cognitions (intentions and efficacy), and affect (satisfaction and attitude) was examined. The results showed that social influence generally has a small to moderate positive effect (i.e., effect size [ES] from .20 to .50). However, four moderate to large effect sizes (i.e., ES from .50 to .80) were found: family support and attitudes about exercise, task cohesion and adherence behavior, important others and attitudes about exercise, and family support and compliance behavior.

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Makoto Chogahara, Sandra O’Brien Cousins and Leonard M. Wankel

The interpersonal relationships of older adults have long been recognized as important determinants for their physical activity involvement. To date, researchers in this field have tended to focus on positive social influences, such as social support. Furthermore, in most studies, operational definitions of social support have stressed the source of the support (e.g., family support and friend support) rather than the nature of the support provided by these groups and individuals. In order to clarify the social context of physical activity among older adults, more attention should be paid to exploring both positive and negative social influences on physical activity. The objectives of this paper were to consolidate current findings concerning social influences and physical activity among aging adults, and to identify major positive and negative social influences from the literature that are associated with physical activity and health-promoting behaviors among aging adults. The development of a more comprehensive and representative method of measuring social influences in physical activity settings is advocated.

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Jessie N. Stapleton, Diane E. Mack and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude of the relationship between social influence and both PA behavior and PA-related social cognitions among samples of adults with physical disabilities, including those with chronic conditions that can lead to a physical disability. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies involving adults with physical disability, a measure of social influence, and a measure of PA behavior or PA-related social cognitions. A total of 27 studies with 4,768 participants yielded 47 effect sizes to be included for meta-analysis. Significant, small- to medium-sized relationships were identified between social influence and PA behavior, and social influence and PA-related social cognitions. These relationships suggest that social factors positively associate with physical-activity-related social cognitions and should be targeted when promoting physical activity behavior change among adults with a physical disability.

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Simon J. Driver

The study consisted of (a) assessing the validity and reliability of the Social Influence Scale (SIS) for adults with brain injuries and (b) examining the types and sources of social influence and demographic variables that affect participants’ physical activity behaviors. Three confirmatory factor analyses, intraclass correlations, and a repeated measures MANOVA were completed on responses from 402 adults with brain injuries. Results provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the SIS, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants reported receiving different types of social influence from family, friends, and caregivers. Findings have implications for specialists and suggestions are provided on ways to enhance the physical activity participation of adults with brain injuries.

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Catherine M. Sabiston and Peter R.E. Crocker

This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good ft to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable ft to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity.

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Charles J. Hardy, Evelyn G. Hall and Perry H. Prestholdt

Two experiments are reported that investigate the mediational role of social influence in the self-perception of exertion. In Experiment 1, subjects performed three 15-min trials on a cycle ergometer at 25%, 50%, and 75% VO2max, both in the presence of another performer (a coactor) and alone. The results indicated that subjects reported lower RPEs when performing with another, particularly at the moderate (50%) intensity. In Experiment 2, subjects performed one 15-min trial at 50% of VO2max, both alone and in the presence of another performer (coactor) exhibiting nonverbal "cues" that the work was either extremely easy or extremely difficult. The results indicated that subjects exposed to the low-intensity cue information reported lower RPEs than when performing alone. Mo significant differences were noted for those subjects exposed to the high-intensity cue information. These findings are discussed in terms of a self-presentational analysis. That such effects were evidenced without physiological responses (VO2, VE, HR) accompanying them supports the notion that psychological variables can play a significant role in the self-perception of exertion. These results, however, are limited to untrained individuals exercising at moderate intensities.

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L.R. Brawley, P.K. Flora, S.R. Locke and M.S.H. Gierc

In this paper, we argue that the social influence of the group is a supportive medium for older adult thriving. To promote the physical well-being aspect of thriving, we discuss groups as one means of offering social support. We present a specific model of physical activity intervention (i.e., group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention) that uses deliberately-formed interactive groups to help motivate older adults to engage in and sustain physical activity. Our article includes four sections that concern the GMCB intervention model. The first serves as background as to why groups can be powerful behavior change agents and describes the basic model of group motivated intervention. The second section provides a generic description of the intervention structure and how the GMCB intervention is conducted. The third section presents a meta-analytic summary of results of older adult GMCB physical activity interventions across three levels of outcomes: adherence to physical activity, functional and physiological, and social cognitive. The fourth section concludes with commentary about the translational perspective for the GMCB in the future.

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Kyra Hamilton and Katherine M. White

The current study aimed to test the validity of an extended theory of planned behavior model (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), incorporating additional self and social influences, for predicting adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants (N = 423) completed an initial questionnaire that assessed the standard TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, as well as past behavior, self-identity, and the additional social influence variables of group norms, family social support, friends’ social support, and social provisions. One week after completion of the main questionnaire, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed self-reported physical activity during the previous week. The standard TPB variables—past behavior, self-identity, and group norms, but not social support infuences—predicted intentions, with intention, past behavior, and self-identity predicting behavior. Overall, the results provide support for an extended version of the TPB incorporating self-identity and those social influences linked explicitly to membership of a behaviorally relevant reference group.

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Janine V. Olthuis, Byron L. Zamboanga, Matthew P. Martens and Lindsay S. Ham

Research has shown that college student-athletes are at increased risk for hazardous alcohol use. As such, this study examined social and cognitive influences on athletes’ alcohol consumption by exploring the association between injunctive norms (parental, teammate, and coach approval) and hazardous alcohol use among college athletes, and testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations would mediate this association. College student-athletes (n = 301; mean age = 19.4, SD = 1.3) completed self-report questionnaires assessing their drinking behaviors and perceptions of alcohol use in their social environment. Structural equation modeling revealed, in all but one case, a direct association between each of the injunctive norms variables and hazardous alcohol use. In addition, negative expectancy valuations mediated the association between teammate approval and hazardous alcohol use. Injunctive norms emerged as an important factor in student-athletes’ alcohol use. Implications for alcohol intervention programming among student-athletes are discussed.