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Florian Herbolsheimer, Stephanie Mosler, Richard Peter and the ActiFE Ulm Study Group

determinants of mortality showed that the effects of social isolation were comparable with those of smoking and even exceed other well-known risk factors for mortality ( Holt-Lunstad, Smith, & Layton, 2010 ). Physical activity might be one factor that mediates the relationship between social isolation and

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Lauren M. Robins, Ted Brown, Aislinn F. Lalor, Rene Stolwyk, Fiona McDermott and Terry Haines

Social isolation is a considerable problem confronting the health of older adults. Socially isolated older adults, for example are at a greater risk of poor mental and physical health and are more likely to experience cardiovascular disease, cognitive deterioration, depression and mortality than

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards and Afroditi Stathi

Loneliness and social isolation (SI), seen as distinct concepts, have been associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality ( Elovainio et al., 2017 ; Holt-Lunstad, Smith, Baker, Harris, & Stephenson, 2015 ; Shankar, McMunn, Demakakos, Hamer, & Steptoe, 2017 ; Valtorta, Kanaan, Gilbody

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Mark A. Tully, Ilona I. McMullan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, Laura Coll-Planas, Manuela Deidda, Paolo Caserotti, Dietrich Rothenbacher and on behalf of the SITLESS group

A decrease in economic resources, an increase in mobility impairment, or a loss of family and friends can increase the risk of social isolation, the quantitative measure of social relationships and contacts ( Nicholson, 2012 ; Victor, 2011 ), which then can lead to loneliness, the subjective

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Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere and Mary Ann Rintoul

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the phenomenon of alienation in physical education from the perspectives of children. Of particular interest were children’s perspectives about the three constructs of alienation: (a) powerlessness, (b) meaninglessness, and (c) social isolation, as defined by Carlson (1995). A case study methodology was employed with sixth grade children (ages 10 and 11), with a total of 14 children forming the unit of analysis. Observations, field and reflective notes, drawings and semistructured interviews were used to triangulate the data. The data were analyzed by employing a continuum of inductive and deductive analysis, using categorical aggregation and direct interpretation. Three themes were identified as representative of the children’s perspectives: (a) degree of control, (b) meaning, and (c) social factors. The results are discussed in relation to their contribution to the understanding of alienation in children’s physical education and implications for practice.

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Donna L. Goodwin and E. Jane Watkinson

The study describes the phenomenon of inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with disabilities. The experience of 9 elementary school-aged students with physical disabilities (6 males and 3 females with a mean age of 11 years, 1 month) was captured by way of focus group interviews, field notes, and participant drawings. The thematic analysis uncovered a persistent dichotomy in how the participants experienced physical education. Good days were revealed in the themes of sense of belonging, skillful participation, and sharing in the benefits. Bad days were overshadowed by negative feelings revealed in the themes of social isolation, questioned competence, and restricted participation. The students’ experiences were discussed within the conceptual framework of ecological perception and affordance theory (Gibson, 1977, 1979).

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Deborah L. Krueger, Patrick DiRocco and Manny Felix

The purpose was to ascertain what obstacles adapted physical education (APE) specialists in Wisconsin had encountered while developing physical activity leisure transition plans (LTP) in accordance with the PL 105-17 mandate on transition services. Also addressed were the reasons why some APE specialists had not written LTPs or been involved in transition planning. Participants included 155 APE specialists representing 91 school districts in Wisconsin who returned a mailed questionnaire (i.e., a 75% return rate). Results indicated that only 21% (n = 33) of the APE specialists had written a LTP. Sixty-four percent (n = 78) of the specialists who reported not having written a LTP said that they had never been asked to be part of transition planning. APE specialists who had written LTPs indicated that transportation, social isolation, and budget restrictions were the greatest barriers.

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Kimberly Place and Samuel R. Hodge

The purpose was to describe the behaviors of eighth-grade students with and without physical disabilities relative to social inclusion in a general physical education program. Participants were 3 girls with physical disabilities and 19 classmates (11 females, 8 males) without disabilities. The method was case study. Data for a 6-week softball unit were collected using videotapes, live observations, and interviews. Findings indicated that students with and without disabilities infrequently engaged in social interactions. Average percentage of time that classmates gave to students with disabilities was 2% social talk and less than 1% in each category for praise, use of first name, feedback, and physical contact. Two themes emerged in this regard: segregated inclusion and social isolation. Students with disabilities interacted with each other to a greater degree than with classmates without disabilities. Analysis of use of academic learning time revealed different percentages for students with and without disabilities.

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Jonathan Magee, Ramón Spaaij and Ruth Jeanes

This paper builds on the concept of mental health recovery to critically examine three football projects in the United Kingdom and their effects on the recovery process. Drawing on qualitative research on the lived experiences of mental health clients and service providers across the three projects, we explore the role of football in relation to three components of recovery: engagement, stigma, and social isolation. The findings indicate how the projects facilitated increased client engagement, peer supports, and the transformation of self-stigma. The perception of football as an alternative setting away from the clinical environment was an important factor in this regard. Yet, the results also reveal major limitations, including the narrow, individualistic conceptualization of both recovery and stigma within the projects, the reliance on a biomedical model of mental illness, and the potentially adverse consequences of using football in mental health interventions.

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Angelique Aspridis, Paul O’Halloran and Pranee Liamputtong

Female bodybuilding is a sport where competitors often make considerable alterations to their diets, physical activities, and social lives to successfully prepare for competition. No study had specifically examined the perceived impact of participating in the Figure class of female bodybuilding, which places less emphasis on muscularity and more on feminine presentation. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceived social and psychological effects of participating in the Figure class. Semistructured interviews, ranging from 45 to 90 minutes, were conducted with 11 female Figure competitors. These women experienced many positive consequences as a result of participating, such as a sense of empowerment. However, results revealed that women in the sport of bodybuilding do not need to be “male like” in appearance to experience negative social reactions. Results demonstrated that women competing in the Figure class, with the greater emphasis on feminine presentation and considerably less emphasis on muscularity, also experienced widespread stigma and social isolation.