This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on sport and globalization. In the first section of the paper major elements of the current debate are presented. The second section discusses the current literature on globalization and its related processes. Four elements are discussed in this section: the global economy, communications, new social movements, and the question of identity/culture. The third section comments on sport and key issues of the debate on globalization in light of the discussion in the previous section. An emphasis is put on the interrelationships between sport and new social movements.
Jean Harvey and François Houle
between physical activity, human movement, and activism. 9 In other words, what possibilities for “sport,” “physical culture,” and social movements exist when the focus shifts from celebrity platforms and elite sports to participatory spheres of action? 10 This article begins with a brief narrative of
Jean Harvey, John Horne and Parissa Safai
Alterglobalization is the name for a large spectrum of global social movements that present themselves as supporting new forms of globalization, urging that values of democracy, justice, environmental protection, and human rights be put ahead of purely economic concerns. This article develops a framework for the study of the influence of alterglobalization on sport by: outlining a periodization of social movements and sport; proposing a typology of responses to the politics of globalization; and proposing a typology of recent social movements associated with sport. The article does not report on an empirical research project, but provides a stock take of what has happened since the 1990s regarding the politics of globalization and the politics of sport, with specific reference to global social movements. The questions raised in this article include: What form do the movements challenging the world sports order today take? Does an alterglobalization movement exist in sport? What alternative models of sport do they propose?
By considering three main questions, this article develops an argument for rethinking existing approaches to understanding both sport-related social movements and “local” responses to globalizing forces in light of the emergence of Internet communication. They are: (a) How can extant conceptions of sport-related social movements be expanded to account for more advanced forms of cultural and political opposition that result from and are potentially enhanced by the Internet? (b) How does the link between the development of the Internet and the enhanced formation and functioning of (new) social movements offer a foundation from which to expand understandings of relationships between global sport-related influences and the responses of local cultures? (c) What methodological approaches are best suited for studying Internet-related forms of sport-related activist resistance? The article concludes that recent developments in communication technology have contributed to a situation in which there is immense revolutionary potential in sport-related contexts, and for sociologists (of sport) interested in contributing to activist projects.
This 2-part longitudinal study uses quantitative content analysis of newspapers to investigate gender dynamics in producing news on equality in sports. It analyzes differences in Title IX coverage by reporter gender to determine whether female journalists advocated more aggressively for women’s equality than their male counterparts did. The study’s first part uses content analysis of volume and placement of articles about Title IX, by journalist gender, and discusses the implications of how patterns of volume and placement have changed over time. The second part identifies advocacy and opposition frames used in the conflict over Title IX; applies content analysis of frames used, by journalist gender; and discusses implications of reporting differences and changes over time for equality. Evidence suggests that, first, social control; then a feminist perspective; and, most recently, a postfeminist worldview among female journalists influenced coverage of the law.
Gary Alan Fine
Despite the tendency to think of leisure activity in terms of personal preferences, leisure can also be understood in terms of the ability of organizations to provide resources for participants. Drawing on the resource mobilization approach to social movements, I outline a theoretical approach, labeled Provisioning Theory, which attempts to explain how leisure organizations use resources to attract and retain participants. Organizations must mobilize “fun” for members if they are to continue over time and the leisure activity is to increase in popularity. After describing how Provisioning Theory applies to a voluntary leisure subculture (mushroom collecting), I examine two special cases of the provisioning of resources: games that are “owned” or controlled by a corporation (Dungeons & Dragons) and voluntary sports activities organized with multiple levels of authority (Little League baseball).
This article argues that coverage of the Kobe Bryant rape case illuminated bitter divisions in American society, because the allegations against Bryant brought forth tensions involving conceptions of Black masculinity, White femininity, and the role of sport and celebrity in public life. The divisions laid bare by the Bryant case involve long histories of discursive contests waged by social movements and state actors over the meanings of categories of race and gender. I argue that these struggles have influenced public understandings of history; that contemporary understandings of race, gender, and crime are very much indebted to rhetorical battles fought long ago; and that invocations of collective memory can help to determine how various audiences make sense of public dramas unfolding in the mass media.
Peter Millward and George Poulton
This article explores the establishment and development of fan-owned association football club, F.C. United of Manchester. It does this by drawing upon extensive ethnographic fieldwork, including interviews, observations and an analysis of multiple texts, such as fanzines, web-based and media reports materials and discusses this using Herbert Blumer’s theory of collective behavior. As such, the article addresses two research questions: first, what the empirical case example of F.C. United of Manchester offers to the critical understanding of Blumer’s theory and second, what the theory can give to the understanding of twenty-first century protests in popular culture. Therefore this article contributes to contemporary debates on association football fandom, social movements and the theories of Herbert Blumer.
Research Sport, World Economy, Global Culture, and New Social Movements Jean Harvey * François Houle * 12 1994 11 4 337 355 10.1123/ssj.11.4.337 Homogenization, Americanization, and Creolization of Sport: Varieties of Globalization Barrie Houlihan * 12 1994 11 4 356 375 10.1123/ssj.11
Research “An Eye for Talent”: Talent Identification and the “Practical Sense” of Top-Level Soccer Coaches Mette Krogh Christensen * 9 2009 26 3 365 382 10.1123/ssj.26.3.365 Alterglobalization, Global Social Movements, and the Possibility of Political Transformation through Sport Jean Harvey